Umsuka, Umlando kanye Nokuthuthukiswa Komphakathi

La Historia del Socialismo, corresponde a una doctrina o conjunto de ideas u opiniones, sustentada por una persona o grupo de ellas. También exige la ordenación equitativa del patrimonio y la supresión de las distinciones sociales. En el presente artículo se muestra todo lo que necesitas saber sobre este importante tema de influencia económica.

umlando we-socialism

El ukuqala kwe-socialism, kwenzeka njengemibono, yamanje noma imfundiso, ngaphakathi kwalokho okubizwa ngokuthi "umphakathi wezimboni". Nakuba inkolelo-mbono noma umbono unomlando wangaphambili. Ngoba kungenzeka ukuhlola nokuqaphela ukwazisa, imicabango noma imibono yesocialist noma yamaKhomanisi. Isibonelo, emibhalweni ekude, njengaleyo eyenziwe ngaphambi kukaKristu, ekusetshenzisweni komphakathi kwezinhlamvu zokuqala zobuKristu noma ohlelweni La Umnotho we-Inca.

Abaningi bathi izwi i-socialism, livela cishe ngonyaka ka-1830, lisetshenziselwa ukuchaza, ukuveza, ukukhomba noma imininingwane. Ukuvukela umbuso okwenzeka ngekhulu le-XNUMX, okuhlobene nesistimu yezomnotho esekelwe kubunikazi bangasese noma obuyimfihlo. Kwezinqubo zokukhiqiza kanye nokuzimela kwe umnotho, ezinkingeni zomphakathi zangaleso sikhathi. Ikakhulukazi noma ngokuqondile, abasekeli noma abalandeli bombono, uRobert Owen noHenri de Saint-Simon.

Ezinye zisebenziseka ngokweqile, ziyasebenza futhi zinenjongo, kanti ezinye zinemicabango ephusile, ziyacabangela futhi kunzima ukuzifeza noma zinemibono ehlukene. Kodwa-ke, lezi zimfundiso kanye nokuvukela kwahlangana noma kwaqondana emibonweni yabo okubhekiselwe kukho kulokho. yini i-socialism. Kuboniswa ngokucaciswa okungenelele ukusetshenziswa kwengqondo yomuntu mayelana nokuqonda nobuhlakani, kanye nezinga eliphezulu lempilo yomphakathi. Ngale ndlela, lokho okubizwa ngokuthi:

  • "I-socialism yokuqala yesimanje yezimboni".

Okuyilokho okwamanje okubizwa ngokuthi “i-classical socialism”. Ukuba nezindawo zokwamukela imvelaphi noma ukuzalwa kwazo, EFrance njengeNgilandi.

Ukufika KweMarxism

Emlandweni weSocialism, naphezu kokuntula ukunemba kweqembu eliqinile lemiqondo, imibono noma imicabango, babenokunaka kwezazi zefilosofi eziphawulekayo nezifundiswa. Njengezishoshovu, ezangena ezifundweni noma ezinqubweni, ukuze zinikeze lokho okubizwa ngokuthi iMarxism ukungena ekhulwini le-XNUMX.

Kufanele kuqashelwe ukuthi i-Marxist socialism yashintsha ngokuqinisekile indlela yokucabanga nokubona umphakathi, kanye nokuphila. Lapho ngokuhlanganyela, wanikeza i-socialism imfundiso noma ithiyori, edidiyelwe futhi efanayo, enengqikithi nomcabango, enengqondo, enobulungiswa futhi enobuhlakani. Lokho kuhambisana nokwazisa umguquki waseJalimane uFederico Engels (1820 - 1895).

Kusukela kulo mzuzu, lokho okubizwa ngokuthi yi-socialism, eyaziwa nangokuthi igama lobukhomanisi, inqoba noma ifinyelela, ukufaneleka nokusebenza kahle emaqenjini ahlukahlukene. Njengasezinhlanganweni ezahlukene noma izinkampani ezikhokhelwayo kanye nabasebenzi emkhakheni wezabasebenzi eYurophu.

Umlando we-socialism ufinyelela ekupheleleni kwawo noma umvuthwandaba wezombangazwe ekuqaleni kwekhulu lama-1917, ngokusebenzisa i-Russian Revolution, ikakhulukazi ngo-1870. Ngokuphathwa kukaVladimir Ilych Lenin (1924 - XNUMX), owaqeda ngokuphelele i-tsarist yobukhosi.

Ngale ndlela, izwe lokuqala elikhona lezenhlalakahle e umlando we-socialism, ngethonya likaMarxist-Leninist. Okungeyena omunye ngaphandle kweSoviet Russia, kamuva eyaba yilokho okwaziwa ngokuthi:

  • I-Union of Soviet Socialist Republics noma i-USSR.
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IMpi Yezwe II iyaqala

Izehlakalo eRussia zandisa umbono wendabuko waseYurophu. Okubuye kuholele noma kuhlanganiswe ukuthi kusetshenziswe eqinisweni lokuphikisana noma ukufakazela iqoqo lemibono eveza lokho okubizwa ngokuthi i-fascism. Okuhambisana nombono noma imfundiso yepolitiki yobushiqela. Okunesisekelo esimelene namakhomanisi ngokuphelele, okuholela ekutheni iMpi Yezwe Yesibili icunulwe noma idedelwe.

Ngemva kokuqeda le mpi eyinhlekelele, maphakathi nekhulu lama-XNUMX, isintu, ngemva kokufuna Ukuqhubeka okuqhubekayo. Ivuma ngokusemthethweni noma yemukela ukwahlukanisa noma ukwehlukaniswa kube amaqoqo amabili ngalokho okubizwa ngeMpi Yomshoshaphansi, okuyilawa:

  • I-Capitalist Area, eyayiholwa noma iqondiswa yi-United States ne-England.
  • Isihloko seSocialist, esibuye sibizwe ngokuthi ngamakhomanisi, aholwa noma aholwa yizizwe, i-Union of Soviet Socialist Republics neChina. Ukuthi ngemva kweNguquko YamaKhomanisi YaseShayina ka-1949, umbono wakhe othile wokusebenzelana kwabantu, obizwa ngokuthi ubuMaoism, kwakufanele usungulwe.

Izimo ezifanayo zenzeke nakwamanye amazwe emhlabeni jikelele, phakathi kwazo okulandelayo okugqamayo:

  • IVietnam, neNguquko ka-Agasti ka-1945.
  • IKorea, ngemva kweMpi YaseKorea, yakhiqiza phakathi kuka-1950 no-1953.
  • ICuba, neCuban Revolution ka-1959.
  • ECambodia, ngemva kweMpi Yombango YaseCambodia, eyaba khona phakathi kuka-1967 no-1975, phakathi kwezinye.

Ngenxa yolaka nobugebengu, abaningana balaba hulumeni abanegunya lobushiqela nabanegunya bahlanganyela ezimpini. Njengoba nje benza ukuqothulwa kwesizwe noma ukubulawa kwabantu abaningi, kanye nobuqaba obuhlukahlukene noma izinyamazana. Kuye ngalokho abakubiza ngokuthi "umuntu omusha" noma "umphakathi we-utopian wesikhathi esizayo."

Izindlela Zokuphela Kwekhulu Lama-XNUMX

Ngasekupheleni kwekhulu lama-1991, ikakhulukazi ngemva kokuhlukana kweSoviet Union ngo-XNUMX, ingxenye enkulu yezizwe ezingaphansi kwesigaba sobusoshiyali. Bacwile ekungazinzini noma ekungalinganini, lapho baphinde baphoqeleka ukuba benze, ngokusekelwe kokuhlangenwe nakho, uguquko olusha futhi bathathe umthwalo wemfanelo osemthethweni womnotho ezinhlotsheni ezihlukahlukene zezimakethe.

Lapho kufika ishumi leminyaka eliwujuqu nelokugcina lekhulu lama-XNUMX, ukuqedwa kwe umlando we-socialism noma njengoba uFrancis Fukuyama ayibiza ngaleso sikhathi. Ukuthi wayengumcabango waseJapane ophawulekayo, "Ukuphela Komlando", sekufikile.

Kodwa, ngenxa yalokho, kusekhona okwahunyushwa ngokuthi umzamo noma indaba evuselelwe noma entsha, yezombangazwe noma indaba, isazi sezomnotho saseJalimane esabiza uHeinz Dietrich Steffan ngaphansi kwenkulumo ethi, "Socialism of the 1954st Century". Lokho kuqala ukuvela emhlabeni wonke, ngenxa yokukhulunywa ngakho ku-"V World Social Forum". Kusukela ezwini likamongameli ngesikhathi se-Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela, u-Hugo Chávez Frías (2013 - XNUMX), kububanzi noma umongo walokho akubeka yena ngokwakhe i-Bolivarian Revolution.

Hugo Chavez Umlando Wezenhlalakahle

Amazwe Amanje Ama-Socialist

Izizwe ezizikhangisayo njengamanje njengama-socialist, ezinempilo yazo ethile, ezinomlando wazo ohlukile we-socialism, yilawa maRiphabhulikhi alandelayo:

  • Abantu baseShayina.
  • Kusuka eCuba
  • IDemocrat Yabantu baseLao.
  • I-Democratic People's Republic of Korea.
  • Vietnamese Socialist.
  • I-Bolivia yaseVenezuela.

Umsuka Womlando weSocialism

Izimiso ezihlobene nokutadisha umlando wokusebenzelana kwabantu zibuyela emuva, kwaze kwaba yilapho ifinyelela emcabangweni noma emibonweni yesazi sefilosofi esingumGreki esidumile uPlato. Lapho esebenzisa umbhalo wakhe obizwa ngokuthi "IRiphabhulikhi", ukuveza okwakulungile, okulinganiselayo, okungachemi kanye nokwethembeka, futhi ngokufanayo, okwakuhlukumeza, okunganaki, okungamukelekile noma okungafanelekile emphakathini. Lapho, njengoba kwaziwa, kwakuqabukela ukuthi abanye babe nesizinda noma uhulumeni.

Igama elithi socialism lasetshenziswa okokuqala noma ithuba ngonyaka we-1766, ngendela egama layo linguFerdinando Facchinei. Ubani oyisebenzise ukuze abhekisele ekucatshangelweni okuchazwe embhalweni obhekisela "Kunkontileka Yomphakathi", ekhona phakathi kwalokho okuyisizwe kanye nokuqoqwana noma umphakathi, kaJuan Jacques Rousseau. Lapho akhulumela khona ukuzimela, kanye nokulingana, ubulungisa nokungakhethi komphakathi.

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Empeleni, izinto eziyisisekelo ezazikhuthaza, ezikhuthaza noma ezivuna umsuka wobusoshiyali zihluke ngokuphelele. Kodwa, okwenza umehluko ubugqila obungenakuphikwa noma ukucindezelwa, kanye nenzuzo ngemva kokuxhashazwa kwesigaba sabasebenzi. Okuhambisana nalokhu kukhona nokuntula ukuqwashisa ngempahla, ingcebo noma amagugu kanye nezimali ezisatshalaliswa ngokungeyikho.

Kuyilapho-ke, lapho kuvela i-socialism, ngokukhethekile ngokusebenzisa uRobert owen kanye no-Henri de Saint - Simon, ngonyaka we-1834, echazwa kabanzi noma ecaciswa njengenhlangano noma umphakathi, lapho ukukhiqiza kanye nempahla kuthathwa ngendlela ehluke ngokuphelele kuleyo echazwe yi-utopian socialism.

Ukuzalwa kwe-Scientific Socialism

Ngakolunye uhlangothi, kukhona umsuka wokusebenzelana kwabantu ngokwesayensi, owavela ngeNguquko Yezimboni, ngo-1848. Ngemva kombukiso kaKarl Marx noFriedrich Engels, lapho bathwebula khona izisekelo ezibhekisela kulokho okubizwa ngokuthi i-socialism yesimanje. Okuqala futhi kuhambisane ne-capitalism, okusho ukuthi ayihambisani nempahla yomuntu siqu. Lokho kuphambene ngokuphelele nesimo samanje sobukhomanisi obunenjongo yokuqothula impahla yomuntu siqu.

Njengamanje, igama elithi socialism lihlanganisa "amademokhrasi omphakathi" agunyaziwe, asekelwe emakethe ezimele, kancane kancane ngombono wesakhiwo somnotho. Lapho ngokufana isizwe sigxambukela, sihlole futhi sicwaninge. Yingakho i-socialism ikwazi ukusebenza ngohulumeni wentando yeningi, kuyilapho kubukhomanisi kungenakwenzeka.

Izisekelo Zomlando weSocialism

Umlando we-socialism uthola isisekelo sawo kulokhu kubonakaliswa okulandelayo:

  • Ukuvuselelwa noma ukuguqulwa kwe-capitalist yangasese yangasese, ezimpahleni ezihlangene. Okusho ukuthi, izindlela ezihlukene, izinqubo kanye nezinsiza zokukhiqiza, njengokugeleza, izimboni, umhlaba, izinto zokusetshenziswa, izinto zokusebenza, imishini, phakathi kwabanye, zaba ifa elihlangene, elihlanganiswe nenhlangano yesisebenzi sezenhlalakahle.
  • Ukusabalalisa okulinganayo ngabasebenzi ngokwabo, kwemisebenzi noma imisebenzi, kanye nokukhiqiza.
  • Ukuhlela noma ukuhlelwa kwezibopho, ngesahlulelo, umbono, isimiso noma indlela yokwenza, uphenyo oluvelele, inhloso, okufakazelwe, ubuchwepheshe futhi ngesikhathi esifanayo okobuntu futhi kuyaqondakala.
  • Isisekelo noma ukusungulwa kwegunya, ukuphatha noma inqubomgomo, ebuswa noma edidiyelwe isisebenzi noma isigaba sabasebenzi.

Izimbangela Ezadala Ukubukeka Kwe-Socialism

Izimbangela ezibalulekile noma eziyinhloko ezidale ukuqala kwe umlando we-socialism Yilezi ezilandelayo:

  • Ukuhanjiswa noma ukukhululwa kwesigaba sabasebenzi emisebenzini yaso, kanye nemishini ehlanganiswe endaweni yokusebenza.
  • Isimo noma isimo sokungakwazi ukuzisiza ngokuphelele lapho abantu abakha isigaba sabasebenzi noma isigaba sabasebenzi bazithola bekuso, lapho ukuntengantenga kwakuwusuku nosuku.
  • Ukuxhashazwa ngonya nokunganaki kwesigaba sabasebenzi ngezindlela eziningi. Ukuba yizo ezijwayelekile, iholo eliphansi, inani elingapheli lamahora okusebenza, izimo eziyingozi kanye nezimo, phakathi kokunye.
  • Ukubonwa okuncane noma kwansuku zonke okuncane noma ukuthambekela kwabacebile noma abaqashi, ababenombono kuphela othonywe isidingo esinganeliseki semali eningi. Ngaphandle kokuzinika umsebenzi wokubonga ukuthi bazungezwe abantu njengabo, lapho umehluko ulele ezingeni lezomnotho nezenhlalo.

Kungenxa yakho konke lokhu lapho abantu ababambelele ku-socialism bephikelela ekuqinisekiseni ukuthi isizathu esiyinhloko sobumpofu ukuthi inala isakazwa ngokungalungile phakathi kwabantu. Lapho okuhambisana nalokhu, kunomphakathi, umphakathi noma umphakathi ongenanhlangano evumela ukulingana kwabantu.

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Ukuthuthukiswa komlando weSocialism

Ukuthuthukiswa komlando we-socialism kwacwiliswa ekhulwini leshumi nesishiyagalolunye, lapho eYurophu, njengase-United States, kwakuyilokho okubizwa ngokuthi i-industrial capitalism. Kulesi sigameko, isenzo noma isigameko esiqediwe, ukuthi kuvela i-industrial proletariat, okuyisigaba sabasebenzi esasikhona I-Industria. Ukuba yisigaba esiqoqekile esikhuthaza inani elibanzi lemibono, izenzo kanye nokuvukela umphakathi, ngenani elikhulu lamazwe aseYurophu. Ukuba yizona ezidume kabi noma ezivelele, lezo ezenzeke ku:

  • I-Revolution ka-1848, eFrance.
  • I-Paris Commune ka-1871, eFrance.

Lapho u-1883 ufika, imicabango, imibono kanye nemibono ehlobene ne-socialism yayisivele yaziwa cishe kuwo wonke umhlaba. Behlukaniswa ukungqubuzana kwemibono kanye nokuqagela ababekuhilele futhi babekusho.

Phakathi neminyaka ephakathi kuka-1889 no-1914, i-socialism yayisivele isungulwe futhi/noma igxilile ezizweni ezihlukahlukene, okwagqama kuzo okulandelayo:

Nokho, le micabango, imiqondo noma imibono, ngendlela ephikisanayo, yanikeza imiphumela yayo eyayingalindelekile ekuvukeleni okwenziwa ngo-1917. ERussia, eyayibizwa ngokuthi iNguquko ka-October, ngoba kwakungaleyo nyanga.

ISoviet Union yavela ekuvukeleni okwenzeka, yaba noma yaziguqula yaba isizwe sokuqala somhlaba ukuthola noma ukuphoqelela uhlelo lwesocialist olugunyaziwe.

Izici Eziyinhloko Ze-Socialism

Izici eziyinhloko noma eziyisisekelo ezikhomba umlando we-socialism Yilezi ezilandelayo:

  • Ukungenelela kwesizwe, kukho konke okuphathelene nokuphathwa komnotho nokukhiqiza, inhlalakahle yomphakathi kuyinhloso okufanele kuhlangatshezwane nayo.
  • Ngenelela noma lamula ukuze kuvikelwe futhi kulondolozwe ukulingana, kokubili okuhlangene nokwezomnotho, okuhlose ukuzuza ukuthuthukiswa komphakathi.
  • Cindezela noma chitha ubukhona bezigaba zomphakathi, ngoba izigaba yizo ezidlula isigaba sabasebenzi ngokungenasihawu. Wonke umuntu uyalingana futhi phakathi kwabantu akufanele kube nokuhlukana okusekelwe ezingeni lomnotho. Abantu kumele babe nokwenzeka okufanayo ngokwezimali nangokwenhlalo, okubavumela ukuba bafeze izibopho zabo.
  • Iphakamisa ukuthi imikhiqizo yamafa ibe nemikhawulo, kanye naleyo etholiwe, ngenhloso yokulinganisa okufanelekile.
  • Gxila entuthukweni noma ekuthuthukisweni kwesigaba sabasebenzi noma sesigaba esiphansi, uqale ngokubaqinisekisa ngomsebenzi omuhle oneholo elilinganayo ngaphandle kokuxhashazwa. Ngoba umgomo uwukulingana, kanye nenhlalakahle.
  • Iba nesikophu lapho okuyisisekelo kubekwe endaweni eyodwa.
  • Thatha izinsiza, ngoba embusweni wezenhlalakahle, isizwe yisona esihlinzeka ngalokho okudingwa yizakhamuzi.
  • Ukuqedwa kwezinsiza ezikhiqizayo ezizimele, ngoba wonke umuntu uzoba yingxenye yomphakathi, nesizwe senza ukuphatha kwawo.
  • Ukuqaliswa kwezinyathelo, lapho kucaciswa ukulingana kwezomnotho phakathi komphakathi, inhloso kuwukunikeza usizo noma ukuvikela labo abadinga kakhulu noma abanezinsiza ezimbalwa kakhulu. Lezi zinyathelo zingaba, phakathi kokunye, ukukhokhwa kwezintela.
  • Sungula amanani entengo yemikhiqizo, ngoba iningi lale lisungulwa ngendlela yamahhala nenegunya, ngaphandle kwenzuzo noma yiluphi usizo kumsebenzisi womthengi.

I-Socialism vs Capitalism

Kusukela maphakathi nekhulu lama-XNUMX, kokubili i-socialism kanye ne-capitalism kuye kwaboniswa njengemibono ehluke ngokuphelele, imicabango, imibono noma izimfundiso. Ngokuma okuyinselele kokuncintisana ngokuphelele. Kumele:

  • I-Socialism ivikela futhi ikhulume ngokuvuna impahla yomphakathi, ngefa elishushiswa esizweni ngokwaso.
  • Nakuba ubunxiwankulu buvikela futhi buthethelela impahla yangasese, njengoba nje buvikela imakethe ezimele noma Ukuhweba mahhala.

Nokho, kusukela ekupheleni kwekhulu lama-XNUMX, isizwe sobusoshiyali esiphikisana nobunxiwankulu noma ukuhwebelana kwamanye amazwe sayeka ukuba khona ngamandla. Kunamazwe ambalwa kuphela anemibono ehlukene ngendlela yawo yobudlela-ndawonye, ​​uma kuqhathaniswa nezizwe zonke.


Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kuhambisana nemigomo yethu yezimiso zokuziphatha zokuhlela. Okwamanje sisebenzela ukulungisa nokuthuthukisa okuqukethwe kwethu ngezinye izilimi.

Uma ungumhumushi ogunyaziwe ungasibhalela nokusebenza nathi. (isiJalimane, iSpanishi, isiFulentshi)

Ukuze ubike iphutha lokuhumusha noma ukuthuthukiswa, chofoza lapha.

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