Ukwahlukaniswa kwamazwe: Kuyini?, Izinhlobo, Izinzuzo nokunye

A lo largo del presente artículo, conoceremos todo sobre el modelo económico denominado como Descentralización, ¿Qué es?, sus tipos, como puede beneficiar y mucho más. ¡Lo invitamos a que continúe leyendo para que amplíe sus conocimientos sobre este interesante tema!

Kuyini Ukwahlukaniswa Kwamazwe?

Ukwehlukaniswa kwezindawo kuyindlela yezomnotho esekelwe ekwahlukaneni noma ekwehlukaniseni amandla enkampanini ethile, inhlangano, inkampani noma umbuso. Lokhu kusho ukuthi ifuna ukuhlakaza ukwenziwa kanye nokwenza izinto ezibonakalayo kwemibono nezinsiza ezikhundleni ezehlukene ezethulwe ezinhlakeni ezahlukene.

Incazelo yeDecentralization ichaza isidingo noma inhloso yokufuna ukuhlakaza ukugxila kwamandla emphakathini noma ezweni ngenxa yezizathu ezahlukene. Lezi zizathu zibonakala ngokuba umnyakazo wezomnotho, izinsiza noma isabelomali esitholakalayo, okuhlanganisa nezinga eliphansi lokungenelela koMbuso (ikhono lokwenza izinqumo ezinhle zomnotho liyehla.

Ngokwethiyori, kuphambene nalokho okubizwa ngokuthi yi-centralization, kokubili ngokomnotho kanye nomnotho omkhulu. Kuyisu lesu elisetshenziswa ukwehlukanisa amandla athile okuphatha emphakathini.

Ukwehlukaniswa kwezindawo ku-microeconomic

Lesi isandiso se- umnotho onesibopho sokuhlaziya izinga lokuziphatha kwezomnotho kwama-ejenti azimele. Abathengi nezinkampani bayisibonelo salokhu, kanye nabatshalizimali nabasebenzi, njengokuxhumana kwabo okuseduze nemakethe. Ibhekene nokwenza izinqumo abazithatha ngokuzimele ukuze bafeze umgomo.

Izinto okufanele uzicabangele uma ufuna ukwenza ukuhlaziywa kwe-microeconomic ama-ejenti, imakethe, izimpahla, amanani, phakathi kokunye. Ukuze izifundo zenziwe ngendlela engcono kakhulu ngaphandle kokuthikameze noma iyiphi ingxenye, ukuze kuzuzwe inhloso ehlongozwayo.

Ukwahlukaniswa kwezomnotho okukhulu

Ukwehlukaniswa kwezindawo ku-macroeconomic

Le ngxenye yomnotho wethiyori yenza ucwaningo oluphelele nokuhlaziya umnotho, ikwenza lokho ngokubheka okuguquguqukayo okutholakala enanini lokugcina lezinsizakalo zokukhiqiza, imikhiqizo kanye nezimpahla. Futhi inesibopho sokuhlaziya amazinga okuqashwa, izinkokhelo, ukuthi amanani ashintshashintsha kanjani kanye namazinga okushintshanisa aziphatha kanjani.

Babhekisela ezintweni ezicwaninga ngokuqondile ukusebenza okuphelele komnotho, ngaphandle kokucabangela izici ezifana nezinkinga nezici zemboni. Iphinde izame ukukhiqiza kabusha izici ezisemqoka ezehlukene njengokukhula komnotho, ukuntuleka kwemisebenzi, ukukhula kwamaholo, ukwehla kwamandla emali, ibhalansi yohwebo, ukufunwa okuhlanganisiwe, izintela nezinga lenzalo.

Kungase kukuthande:  I-Imperialism: Kuyini?, Izimbangela, Imiphumela nokunye

historia 

Leli gama laqala ukusetshenziswa njengomkhiqizo weNguquko YaseFrance, njengoba lokhu kwakusho isiteji esisha kuHulumeni. INguquko YaseFrance yathatha igxathu elikhulu ekuqondeni lokho okubizwa manje Ukwahlukaniswa kwamazwe. Kodwa-ke, akuyona into engaphezu kwesandiso se-centralization eyaziwayo.

La Ukwehlukaniswa kwezwe yayiswa kwelinye izinga izishoshovu okwathi phakathi kwekhulu le-XNUMX nelama-XNUMX. Leli qembu lazibiza ngama-libertarian anarchists, ngisho nangesikhathi esithile emlandweni bazibiza ngokuthi bangama-decentralists.

Ekuqaleni kwekhulu lama-XNUMX kwakuzovela ukuphikiswa kokufakwa endaweni eyodwa kwezicebi, kwavela enhlanganweni yezishoshovu zezombangazwe, lezi zinhlangano zazingokwesimo sombuso. Le nhlangano yenza izimboni ezinkulu zibukeke zinecala okwagcina ngokuthi Inkampani enosayizi omaphakathi futhi encane. Iphinde yathuthukisa ilungelo lempahla enkulu kanye nokubuyela ekuphileni ngezilinganiso ezincane.

Ukwabiwa kwezindawo ezindaweni kamuva kwase kuba umkhuba woguquko wokunakwa okukhulu. Phakathi kuka-1980 no-1990 babhekisela ku- Ukwehlukaniswa kwezwe njengendlela yokudlulisela izinqumo kuhulumeni wezifundazwe nowezifunda.

 Ukusabalalisa ezindaweni ezahlukene

La Ukwahlukaniswa kwamazwe, Ngokuhamba kwesikhathi, sekuye kwahlukahluka ngokuya ngensimu yokusetshenziswa kwayo, okusho ukuthi manje ayikwazi ukuqaliswa kuphela kohulumeni, iyasebenza nasezinkambisweni ezihlukahlukene zokuphatha, ukuphathwa kwephrojekthi, izinkampani, phakathi kwabanye. Izindawo eziyinhloko yilezi:

kohulumeni 

Amandla alokhu kuthiwa kuhulumeni omkhulu wesizwe, ngale ndlela, ababusi bezifunda bazosebenza njengama-agent awo. Kulokhu, amandla amaningi anikezwa ohulumeni basekhaya, ngokufanayo bathatha izinqumo ngokuzimela mayelana nabaphathi babo. Lo mbono uqinisekisa ukuthi izikhungo zikahulumeni ezahlukene kumele zibe nokuzimela kwesifunda.

ekuphathweni

Kwezokuphatha, i Ukwehlukaniswa kwezwe ingasetshenziswa njenge isu lebhizinisi Isebenza ngendlela ehlelekile, ukuze ivumele ukudluliselwa komyalo emazingeni ezikhundla ezingaphansi komyalelo, kanye nokuvumela ukuzethemba kuwo ukuze enze imisebenzi ehlukahlukene yokuphatha.

  • Ventajas: Ezinhlanganweni ezizimele kunezinzuzo eziningi, njengokwenza imisebenzi ngesivinini esikhulu nokusebenza kahle, ukuxazulula izinkinga ezingase ziphakame ngesivinini esifanayo, ukuphathwa kolwazi olukhulu kubantu abakha inhlangano eshiwo (ngaleyo ndlela kusiza ukwenza izinqumo ezinhle kanye nogqozi) .

Ukwabiwa kwamazwe kanye nenzuzo yenu njengeqembu

Ezinkampanini ezinkulu kakhulu, le ndlela iyadingeka, ngoba abaphathi abanalo ulwazi olwanele lokwenza izinqumo ezifanele ngaso sonke isikhathi. Ngakho-ke, ukudluliselwa kwamandla kusiza ukusebenza kwenkampani futhi kuthuthukisa ukwenziwa kwezinqumo.

Ukwehlukaniswa kwezindawo ezinhlanganweni ezisebenzayo

Namuhla, abaphathi bazama kanzima ukugcina ukugxila ezinkampanini zibe nomthwalo wemfanelo omkhulu. Ngenxa yalesi sizathu, kuye kwanda ukuthambekela kokuqalisa Ukwehlukaniswa kwezwe ezinhlanganweni lapho kuthathwa izinqumo.

Kungase kukuthande:  Umehluko phakathi kweSocialism kanye neCommunism

Inhlangano ehlukaniselwe abantu yinhlangano esebenzayo, yakhiwe izindawo ezithize ezehlukene lapho kukhona abasebenzi abanezigaba ezahlukene, lapho lowo onomyalo osezingeni eliphansi ephethe ukwazisa umphathi wakhe ukuze akwazi ukukwenza nomphathi wakhe futhi. njalo ngokulandelana kuze kufike ebhodini elikhulu.

Izici Zokwahlukaniswa Kwamazwe

Ukwahlukaniswa kwezindawo kuqukethe izici ezihlukahlukene ezinquma ngandlela thize indlela yakho yokubulawa. Eziyinhloko yilezi:

  • Ukudluliswa kwamandla kusuka kuhulumeni omkhulu kuya ezigungwini ezisezingeni eliphansi.
  • UMbuso unikeza izinhlangano ezisemthethweni ehlukaniselwe amazwe
  •  Ubunikazi bomuntu siqu bunikezwa abaphathi abazimele bokuphatha okuphakathi
  • UMbuso yiwona kuphela osebenza phezu kwabo
  • Isekelwe enhlanganweni yezomnotho neyezombangazwe yoMbuso osekelwe ekuzimeleni.
  • Isiza ukuqinisa umlingiswa kuntando yeningi yoMbuso kanye nemigomo yokubamba iqhaza neyokubambisana

Amafomu Okwabiwa Kombuso

La Ukwehlukaniswa kwezwe Kungase kubhekwe njengenqubo yemvelo yomphakathi lapho amandla noma imisebenzi idluliswa isuka kuHulumeni omaphakathi iye emigwaqweni esezingeni eliphansi. Le ndlela ingatholakala ngezindlela ezahlukene:

ukusabalalisa okuqondile

Leli fomu livumela amandla ahlukahlukene kuhulumeni omkhulu ukuba ahlukaniswe futhi asatshalaliswe ekuphathweni kwezikhundla eziphansi (ohulumeni basekhaya noma bezifunda) futhi lingalolongwa libe nezinguquko ezihlukahlukene ezifana nokuntula ukugxila, ukuhanjiswa kwamandla, ukudluliswa kwamandla kanye nokwenza izinto ezizimele.

ukusabalalisa okuvundlile

Yisona esinamandla phakathi kwezikhungo ezehlukene ezinezinga elifanayo lezikhulu zikahulumeni, isibonelo salokhu ukusetshenziswa kwemali kwenkonzo, okwabelwa eziningana.

ukwabiwa kwezindawo zokuphatha

Isho ukudluliselwa kwezinhlangano eziqhudelana ekuphathweni okumaphakathi koMbuso kwezinye izinhlangano ezisemthethweni kanye nezikhundla zomphakathi ezinempahla yazo. Nakuba amandla kahulumeni omkhulu elinganiselwe mayelana nokulawula izinqubo ezenziwa yizinhlangano ezigunyaziwe.

Bangaphansi kwegunya lokuphatha elimaphakathi futhi abanabo ubuntu obusemthethweni obuzimele. Inhloso enkulu yaleli fomu ukuphatha ngempumelelo nokushesha.

Ukwehliswa kwamazwe njengendlela yokuthuthukisa

ukwehlukaniswa kwezombusazwe

Ngale ndlela. Amandla enza imisebenzi yokulawula yemvelo evamile adluliselwa emigwaqweni enqume izisekelo zendawo ezithile, kungaba isifunda, indawo noma indawo.

Futhi inkululeko ethile yokuqondisa imvelaphi yabo yentando yeningi ngenqubo yokhetho. Ochwepheshe abaningi bayavuma ukuthi okubaluleke kakhulu ngale ndlela yezombangazwe ukuthi ibhekisela kumyalo oyinhloko okwazi ukudala ukuzimela, ukulawula kanye nokudlulisela imithwalo yemfanelo.

Kuphambene ne Ukwehlukaniswa kwezwe kwezokuphatha, njengoba linikeza inkampane igunya lokugunyaza imithetho kazwelonke ephathelene nezinkambiso zomthetho ezizoba ngaphansi kokuqondiswa komthetho ovamile.

Kungase kukuthande:  Luyini Uhlelo noma Ifomu Likahulumeni?

ukusebenza kokwabiwa kwamazwe

Leli fomu liqukethe ukudluliselwa kwebhizinisi elihambisanayo lamakhono anqunyiwe, nokho, elomsebenzi othile kuphela. Isibonelo sakho yilapho uMbuso unikeza umsebenzi endikimbeni ephethe ukuphatha izisebenzi zezomthetho kanye nempahla yazo. Isibonelo esicacile singatholakala ezinkampanini zomphakathi.

ukusabalalisa okuxubile

Amafomu ama-2 okukhulunywe ngawo ngenhla angahlanganiswa, ngaleyo ndlela abe ngelinye. Ukwehlukaniswa kwezwe inqubomgomo esekelwe endaweni noma isifunda. Isibonelo salokhu uhulumeni wesifunda noma wenkampani noma inkampani yombuso esifundazweni noma esifundeni sezwe. Lokhu kungaba ukusebenza kanye nendawo ngesikhathi esifanayo.

Ukwehlukaniswa kwezindawo njengombono oxubile

Ukunikezelwa kwemali ngokwezimali

Leli fomu livela ngenxa yokufuna ukusebenza kahle ekwethulweni kwezimali, izimpahla zomphakathi, izindleko zempahla kanye nokuthunywa kukahulumeni omkhulu emigudwini ehlukene yamazinga aphansi.

Izinzuzo nokungalungi 

Nakuba lo msebenzi uvumela izinzuzo eziningi mayelana nentuthuko nokusebenza kahle, ukuthatha ingcindezi kanye nesisindo sokuphatha okuphakathi. Ingase futhi idale intuthuko endaweni ngendlela engalingani futhi engenangqondo, njengoba ingase isuse amandla kuHulumeni futhi iveze imibono ethile ezindaweni zesifunda kuyo yonke indawo.

Ngaleyo ndlela kudale umonakalo emphakathini kanye nokuma ekuthuthukisweni kwezindawo. Kodwa-ke, kuyindlela ephumelela kakhulu, ekwazi ukuqinisekisa ngokuphephile ukuphathwa okuphumelelayo nokushesha koMbuso kanye nezikhungo zomphakathi ezisezingeni eliphansi. Ngisho nanamuhla, lesi sihloko sisaqhubeka sidala inkimbinkimbi eyimpikiswano ukuze siqondwe.

Ngakho-ke, kwamanye amamodeli okuthuthukiswa kungase kudingeke, kanti kwamanye kuwukwenqatshwa ngokuphelele. Kuyadingeka ukwenza ukuhlaziya ezweni ngaphambi kokusebenzisa leli fomu, ngaphandle kokukhohlwa izimpande zalo, amasiko kanye nomlando.

Ukubaluleka 

Muva nje, amazwe amaningi akhethe ukusebenzisa lolu hlelo Ukwahlukaniswa kwamazwe, eziholela ngaleyo ndlela, esifanekisweni esijwayelekile sokuncika ezinhlosweni izwe ngalinye eliziphakamisayo. Le ndlela imele ithuluzi elisebenzayo elisiza ukusabalalisa amandla, izinsiza kanye nezinqumo zikahulumeni wasekhaya ngamunye, ngaleyo ndlela isize intuthuko yezwe ukuthi yenzeke ngendlela eguquguqukayo.

Iqiniso lokufuna ukusebenzisa le ndlela yezomnotho ebizwa ngokuthi Ukwahlukaniswa kwamazwe, liye landa kakhulu eminyakeni yamuva. Lokhu, ngenxa yezinzuzo eziningi ezizibangelayo ezweni elinquma ukukhetha le ndlela. Phakathi kwezinzuzo eziyinhloko esizitholayo:

  • Ukuthuthukiswa nokuvela kwezinsiza zomphakathi ezintsha
  • Khulisa izinga lokuphila labantu
  • Iqinisa intando yeningi futhi ikhuthaze ukubamba iqhaza kwezakhamuzi kanye nokwesekwa
  • Isiza ngokuziphendulela okungcono

Ohulumeni banamuhla baye bakhuthaza indima yohulumeni basekhaya, njengoba sebesondelene nenani labantu, ngaleyo ndlela bathuthukise ubudlelwano phakathi komunye nomunye, kanye nokubamba iqhaza kwabo. Isibonelo sabaxhumanisi phakathi kohulumeni wasekhaya nezakhamizi izimeya, imikhandlu yomasipala, phakathi kwabanye.

Endabeni yebhizinisi, abaphathi nabasebenzi abayingxenye yaleyo nhlangano bayakujabulela ukukwazi ukwenza ngokuzimele nangokuzimela, ngoba abakho ngaphansi kwamandla okuyaleza okulandelanayo.


Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kuhambisana nemigomo yethu yezimiso zokuziphatha zokuhlela. Okwamanje sisebenzela ukulungisa nokuthuthukisa okuqukethwe kwethu ngezinye izilimi.

Uma ungumhumushi ogunyaziwe ungasibhalela nokusebenza nathi. (isiJalimane, iSpanishi, isiFulentshi)

Ukuze ubike iphutha lokuhumusha noma ukuthuthukiswa, chofoza lapha.

I-Creative Stop
IK4
Thola ku-Inthanethi
Abalandeli Abakwe-Inthanethi
ukuyicubungula kalula
imanuwali encane
a ukwenza kanjani
I-TypeRelax
LavaMagazine