Siyini Isikole Se-Neoclassical noma Umnotho?

Ngenxa yezinguquko ezimweni zezomnotho nezenhlalo ekhulwini le-XNUMX eNgilandi naseYurophu, ukuhlaziywa kwezihloko ezinjengokubaluleka nokusabalalisa kwaba nesithakazelo. Ababhali bangaleso sikhathi babebizwa nge-neoclassical, begxile ekusizeni. Funda kulesi sihloko konke mayelana isikole se-neoclassical, abagxeki babo, abacabangi nokunye.

isikole se-neoclassical

esikoleni I-Neoclassical Economics

I-Neoclassical economics, eyaziwa nangokuthi isikole se-neoclassical noma ithiyori yezomnotho ye-neoclassical, umqondo osetshenziselwa ukubhekisela esikoleni sezomnotho. ukucabanga kwezomnotho, okuhloswe ngayo ukuhlanganisa ezinye izinkolelo-mbono ezivela ku-classical economics ku-marginalism.

Kusekelwe embonweni wokuthi ukubaluleka kwefa kuyikhwalithi yenzuzo noma ukwaneliseka abathengi abakunikezayo.

Umnotho noma isikole se-neoclassical satshalwa ngeminyaka yawo-1870 kanye nawo-1920, sizama ukuhlanganisa umcabango wezomnotho owaba khona ngaleso sikhathi, izimfundiso zangaleso sikhathi zazikhomba ukucacisa umnotho futhi ziwuhlobanise ngendlela yezibalo.

Leli gama lisetshenziswa ngaphansi kwemibono emibili, eyokuqala isekelwe ezehlakalweni ezenzeka emsuka wayo kanti eyesibili njengamanje ibhekisela ngokujulile emcabangweni wezomnotho ovamile.

Uthe u-E. Roy Weintraub:

"Sonke singama-neoclassical manje, ngisho nama-Keynesians, ngoba lokho okufundiswa abafundi, ukuthi yini umnotho ojwayelekile, i-neoclassical economics"

Isazi sezomnotho esiyinhloko se-neoclassical kwakungu-Alfred Marshall, owayengumsunguli wemfundiso yokulingana ngokwengxenye, esinye isitembu esikhulu kwakunguLeon Walras, umdali wethiyori yokulingana jikelele, okunye ukuqagela okuhle kakhulu.

Abanye osomnotho abavelele be-neoclassical yilaba:

  • I-Knut Wicksell (imali)
  • I-Inveng Fisher (imali)
  • Arthur Pigou (Welfare Economics)
  • Vilfredo Pareto (Well-being economics)

Isikole se-neoclassical sibe nomthelela omkhulu ezimfundisweni ezathuthukiswa kamuva emcabangweni wezomnotho kulo lonke ikhulu lama-XNUMX, njenge-classical Keynesian synthesis noma i-neo-Keynesianism, ngisho nakwezomnotho zamanje, ngokusebenzisa ama-classics amasha.

Le mibono ihlanganisa ukunaka ekuhlinzekeni kanye nesidingo ekunqumeni amanani, ukubaluleka kwenani emnothweni; ama-neoclassical athuthukise ucwaningo lwezomnotho kwezinye izici ezicatshangelwa abakudala kanye nababandlululi, okusho ukuthi bahlaziya imisebenzi yomthamo ophelele futhi ongaphelele (i-monopoly kanye ne-duopoly). I-neoclassicists iphinde yethula ukuhlaziywa kwama-aggregate.

Enye yezinto eziyinhloko ezihlukanisa isikole se-neoclassical kusukela kwesakudala yindlela ababeka ngayo amanani kanye namanani ayisithenjwa wezimpahla. Isikole sakudala sibeka inani lempahla ngezindleko zayo (ukunikezela); isikole se-neoclassical sisekela inani ngokuya ngosizo lwaso oluseceleni, okungukuthi, inani elinikezwa into yokugcina esetshenzisiwe (isidingo).

Ukukhathazeka okuyinhloko kwe-neoclassical kwakuwukubuyisela kanye nokumaketha okuphelele kwezinsiza zomphakathi. Basekela ngokuqinile ukuhwebelana kwamahhala njengendlela yokuthuthukisa umnotho kanye nendlela yokwenza inzuzo ngokuqhathanisa namazwe.

Origen

Isikole se-neoclassical sivela ekugxekeni kwababandlululi, abazama ukusebenzisa ukuqina kanye nendlela elingana nesayensi yemvelo, base bevele benza ukugxeka mayelana nezindlela nemiqondo esetshenziswa umnotho we-classical noma wezepolitiki.

I-diatribe eyakhayo yesikole se-neoclassical igxile emizamweni yokwenza kube semthethweni kanye nokwandisa umqondo wevelu evumelanayo, okuhlanganisa nendlela yomuntu ngamunye.

Baphinde bethula emfundisweni ucwaningo lwamasethi akho kokubili izimo zomnotho kanye nabantu ngabanye, njengamakilasi kodwa njengezilinganiso zezibalo nama-avareji.

Umsuka wesikole se-neoclassical

Ama-neoclassical ayiziqinisekiso zokwenziwa ngokusemthethweni okunengqondo nezibalo, okuyisici okwamanje salokhu kuziphatha.

Igama elithi neoclassical ngokwalo lavela ngesikhathi sokugxekwa komhlaba wonke kukaThorstein Veblen, owayengumsunguli wesikole saseNyakatho Melika, wasebenzisa leli gama ukuze abhekisele kubantu, ngokombono wakhe, ababengahambisani nemibono yesayensi yesikole sakudala, ikakhulukazi. ukusetshenziswa kwethiyori yenani.

Kufaka phakathi inhloso yababeka eceleni ukuze esikhundleni salo kufakwe ithiyori yenani eliqondile, kanye nombono othi “okungcono kakhulu”. Lokhu kuhlanganisa labo abathathwa njengabanganaki.

Kamuva leli gama lasetshenziswa ngokujwayelekile ukuze libhekisele kubantu ababezwelana nezomnotho zaseMarshall.

I-Marshall synthesis ibonakala njengomzamo wokuhlela nokwenza ngokomthetho ezomnotho zakudala, okukubeka ngaphakathi kokugxeka kuka-Veblen.

Umbono kaMarshall kanye nabamzwelayo, abaqala ukwaziwa ngokuthi ama-marginists angamaNgisi noma ama-Marshallians, wehluke kakhulu kwabanye ababandlululi, okuvumela ukudala umbono naphezu kokuba nezimpande ezifanayo.

Ababhali be-marginalist abafana no-Wicksell no-Carl Menger baziwa njengabadali bezikole zase-Swedish nase-Austrian. Ukuba ngabasekeli abakhulu besikhathi.

Ukuhlaziywa kukaWaltas noFrancis Edgeworth ngokuvamile kufundwa kanye nezibalo zezomnotho futhi kuvame ukufaka uPatero, omele isikole saseLausanne.

Kuthathwa njengephutha ukukholelwa ukuthi uMarshall nabalandeli bakhe kuphela abangabashayi eceleni.

Lokhu kudale ukudideka; ochwepheshe benze umehluko phakathi kwama-marginalists kanye neoclassicists, nokho, iziphathimandla eziningi zifaka ababhali abaningi phakathi kwama-neoclassicists.

Ababhali bacabangele ama-neoclassical amakhulu nguMarshall, uPigou noWalras, nokho, ababhali abaningi bahlanganisa uPareto, uWicksell noFisher kuleli qembu. Ngakho-ke leli gama lingasetshenziselwa ukubhekisela ngokuyiqiniso kokubili kubabhali abakhulu kanye nalabo abaye bathonywa yibo ngokuqondile noma ngokungaqondile.

Ezincwadini zezomnotho ukusetshenziswa kwaleli gama kusetshenziswe ngomqondo ojwayelekile. Lokhu kuphinde kwadala eminye imibuzo, umthelela kaMarshall noWalras uyaqhubeka nokunwebeka kuze kube manje, ngisho nasezindabeni ze-methodological, kodwa ingabe bonke osomnotho kufanele bathathwe njenge-neoclassical?

Kwasungulwa izikole ezintathu ezinkulu ze-neoclassical:

  • IsiNgisi: ephathelene noWilliam Stanley kanye no-Alfred Marshall, umholi wokuqala we-neoclassicism.
  • Owase-Austria: ngokuhlanganyela no-Carl Menger, oveze izici zokuhlaziywa kwe-marginal.
  • IsiFulentshi: lapho u-Leon Walras egqama khona, osebenzise ithiyori yokulingana evamile kanye nomqondo wokusetshenziswa kwe-marginal.

Izici

Leli gama lisetshenziswa kakhulu othisha nothisha, lokhu sekuholele ekutheni kube nokungabaza ukusetshenziswa kwalo ngokuziphatha, ngoba lingadukisa abafundi.

Isikhundla esamukelwe kakhulu ukuthi kukhona iqembu lezomnotho eliwela ngaphansi kwencazelo ye-neoclassical, ngenxa yokuthi babelana ngochungechunge lwemibono evamile.

NgokukaDavid Colander ekwamukelweni okuzuziwe kakhulu kwe-neoclassical, ethuthuka kusukela ngo-1870 kuya ku-1930, inezici ezilandelayo:

  • Isekelwe ekulethweni kwezinsiza ngesikhathi esithile
  • Kubhekiselwa ekukhethweni nasekusetshenzisweni kwezinsiza eziyivelakancane phakathi kwezinye izindlela ezingase zibe khona.
  • Ivuma uhlobo oluthile lwe-utilitarianism, lokhu kudlala indima ebalulekile ekuqondeni ezomnotho
  • Kuhlanganiswe kwezinye izindlela eziseceleni. Ibonisa okunye okuthakaselayo kanye noguquko oluseceleni, okuyinjongo yokubala
  • Thola ubuhlakani besikhathi eside
  • Kuvuma ubuntu be-methodological
  • Yakhiwe ngaphansi komqondo wokulingana okuvamile emnothweni.
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Isikole sezici ze-neoclassical

Kukhona labo abacabanga ukuthi isikole se-neoclassical singatholakala namuhla, uCristian Arnsperger no-Yanis Varufakis, ngendlela yabo bacabanga ukuthi ama-neoclassical ahlanganisa ama-meta-axioms amathathu:

I-Methodological Individualism

Izigigaba okufanele zicutshungulwe zigxile kakhulu kubantu ngabanye, (kubhekiselwa kubantu be-methodological noma ama-ejenti ezomnotho, abekho abantu abavamile).

“I-ejenti yezomnotho iyiyunithi eyisisekelo yokusebenza kumodeli. Ngokuvamile sibheka ukuthi i-ejenti yezomnotho ngumuntu ngamunye…. Kodwa-ke, kwezinye izinhlobo zezomnotho, isizwe, umndeni noma uhulumeni uthathwa njenge-ejenti. Ngezinye izikhathi, "umuntu ngamunye" uchithwa eqoqweni lama-ejenti wezomnotho, ngamunye asebenza ezimweni ezihlukile futhi ngamunye athathwe njenge-ejenti yezomnotho.

I-neoclassical iphinda yethula ithiyori ukuhlaziywa kwamaqembu noma izigaba, zabantu ngabanye kanye nezigigaba, ezibizwa ngokuthi ama-aggregates.

I-Methodological Instrumentalism

Konke ukuziphatha kuqondiswe kokuthandwayo, okungukuthi, kuyasiza.

Inkinga yengqondo yezomnotho ishintshiwe ngenxa yalokhu. Abasekeli be-neoclassicism abavumi ukuthi abantu baphishekela ukuzicabangela bona kuphela, kungakhathaliseki ukuthi kungani bephishekela umgomo ngokunengqondo.

Ibhalansi Yendlela

Ama-Neoclassical acabanga ukuthi ukuziphatha okuhlanganisiwe kuhamba endaweni yokulingana kwezomnotho.

Kwabanye ababandlululi abafana noCarl Menger, asikho isizathu sokuthi imakethe ihlale ilingana, kubo abantu bafuna ukukhulisa izinsiza nezinzuzo, hhayi ukulingana. Kunezihibe ekucabangeni kolwazi oluphelele.

Uma kwenziwa ukuhlaziya okujulile, umehluko omkhulu ungatholakala phakathi kwababhali be-neoclassical. Ukuze uthole ukuqonda okungcono, naphezu kobunzima bayo, ezinye izinhlobo ze-neoclassicism zinganqunywa. Kuyadingeka ukunaka ukuthi akubona bonke ababhali ababe neqhaza elikhethekile kule ndawo.

  1. Izindlela Zokulinganisa:

Uhlukaniswe:

  • Marshall izilinganiso: kubhekwa abaningi njengommeleli oyinhloko wemvelaphi ye-orthodox yomnotho wanamuhla.

UMarshall ufake emfundisweni ukusetshenziswa okusemthethweni kwamamodeli wezomnotho we-diaphragmatic kanye nomqondo, okusekelwe ezifundweni ezinengqondo, umqondo we-Caeteris paribus ungomunye wazo, ususa izibalo kuphela ukuze uthole imibukiso yamanothi nezithasiselo.

KuMarshall, isisekelo sezomnotho njengesayensi sasiwukuqeda ubumpofu. Kulo mbono uMarshall uliguqule leli gama Inzuzo enkulu, eyaziwa ngokuthi i-Goodwill noma i-Marshall Surplus, eyakhiwe ngomkhiqizi kanye nezinsalela zabathengi.

NgokukaMarshall, ubudlelwano bokusebenzisa imali engenayo bomuntu buwumphumela wemisebenzi yensiza ezimele. Lokhu kusho ukuthi ziyanezela futhi amajika okunganaki abe afaneleka kakhulu, alahlekelwe ukuvelela insiza eseceleni ehlongozwe ababandlululi ngokusobala.

Ekugcineni u-Marshall wafaka imiqondo yokuhlinzeka kanye nesidingo kumbono wokulinganisa ingxenye. Le bhalansi igxile emakethe eyodwa, isebenzisa isifundo sokuhlinzeka kanye nesidingo njengomgomo wokuhlaziya ukusebenza, ukusebenza kahle kanye Ingozi yemakethe.

Ukulingana yisimo lapho izinjongo zabakhiqizi nabathengi zilingana noma zilingana ngokwemibandela yemali.

  • Izilinganiso ze-Walras: kwabangela umbono ovelele onikezwa ezomnotho namuhla.

U-Walras wazama ukunikeza isiyalo izinga eliphakeme kakhulu lokunemba nokujwayelekile ngangokunokwenzeka, ngenxa yalokhu washiya noma yisiphi isabelomali sezimiso zokuziphatha, esekela konke ukufunda kwakhe kwizibalo.

isikole se-neoclassical

Kusukela ekugomeni ukuthi inani lezimpahla alisekelwe entandweni yomthengisi noma umthengi, ngokuphambene nalokho, kusekelwe eqinisweni lokuthi izimpahla zezomnotho ziwusizo njengoba zilinganiselwe. Ku-Walras, lokhu okungenhla kubeka ubudlelwano obungahlaziywa njengesayensi yezibalo.

Lokhu kuvumela ukugomela ukuthi bonke abadlali bezomnotho bangabamukeli bamanani, ngakho-ke osungula umcabango wokuthi inani liyanikezwa futhi abalingisi benza ngokunengqondo.

Ukulinganisa okujwayelekile kusekelwe esimisweni sokuthi yonke into ekhiqizwayo iyathengiswa. Ngokucatshangelwa, uphakamise lokho okubizwa ngokuthi yi-Walras Law, esungula ukuthi uma kucatshangelwa imakethe ethile, njengoba zonke izimakethe zisekulinganisweni, leyo makethe kufanele futhi ibe nokulingana.

Okusho ukuthi uma umnotho unokuthile izinhlobo zemakethe futhi okungenani eyodwa yazo isesilinganisweni, kwanele ukuxazulula noma iyiphi i-equation ukuze kunqunywe izimo zemakethe engenalutho yazo zonke ezinye futhi ngenxa yalokho kunqunywe izimo zokulingana okuvamile njengezintengo, izinga lokukhiqiza...

Izinto ezingazodwana yilezo ezivumela ukubalwa kokulingana kwemakethe ngayinye ethile ngenqubo yesilingo ye-Walrasian.

NgokukaWalras, lesi simo singokwezimiso zokuziphatha kuphela, esikufunayo ukuzuza ukwaneliseka okukhulu kwezidingo, ngokuvumelana nezimo zangempela.

2. I-Las Izindlela Zezomnotho Zezenhlalakahle

Uzama ukuhlobanisa ukusebenza kahle komnotho kanye nenhlalakahle yomphakathi, equkethwe ezincwadini zikaPigou, Edgeworth kanye nePareto.

3. I-Las Izilinganiso zobudlelwano phakathi komnotho wangempela nemali

Ifakwe emsebenzini oyinhloko ka-Knut Wicksell no-Irving Fisher, abanikeze indawo yemali kanye nezomnotho wezezimali.

4. Izindlela ezisuselwe ekwandiseni ucwaningo ngale kokuhlaziya okujwayelekile

Kokubili ababandlululi kanye nakwakudala, ukubusa kanye nezimfanelo ezifanele ezicini zesimo esingaphelele. Kulezi zindlela, u-Edward Hastings Chamberlin kanye no-Wicksell bayagqama, bobabili abaphambili embonweni wokuncintisana kobubodwa, kanye no-Piero Sraffa no-Joan Robinson, abasunguli be-oligopoly theory.

Ukugxekwa kwe-Neoclassicism

Kunokugxeka okubili okuyinhloko komhlaba jikelele kwe-neoclassicism, lokhu i-Veblen's Critique (1900) kanye ne-Critique kaPiero Sraffa (1930).

Ukugxeka kukaVeblen

Ku-Veblen, ibhalansi inenzuzo esintwini nakubantu baso ngabanye, kuye kwakuwumqondo ovamile.

I-Veblen i-Teleological kanye ne-Pre-Darwin i-orthodox economics. I-Teleology iyakuvuma lokho inqubo umnotho uyakhula noma uhlala usesimweni esizinzile, lokhu okwaziwa ngokuthi ukulingana kwesikhathi eside, okungabonakali ngempela futhi okungasuki kunoma yikuphi ukuhlaziya, ngokuphambene nalokho kuthathwa njengenani elinikeziwe lanoma yikuphi ukutadisha noma ukubuka.

Ngakolunye uhlangothi, i-Pre-Darwinian, ngokusho kukaVeblen, inqubo yezomnotho iwukuvela kukaDarwin, okwavela ngokuhamba kwesikhathi, ngenxa yezimo ezihlukene nezihlukahlukayo, ezingenakho ukuklama nenjongo.

Isibuyekezo sikaSraffa

Usuqedile ukukhiqizwa kwezimpahla ngempahla.

Ithwebula isethi yezimpikiswano ezathuthukiswa kamuva abanye ababhali. USraffa wayengumcabango ojulile, ehola uLudwig Wittgenstein ukuthi ashintshe izikhundla zakhe zasekuqaleni.

Ukugxeka kuka-Sraffa kugxile embonweni ye-neoclassical yenani, esekelwe kumbono ophikisanayo kanye nengqondo eyiphutha.

Lo mbono wabangela ukuzalwa ekugcineni kwenkulumo-mpikiswano edumile yamaCambridges amabili kanye nesikhundla sikaSraffa esingafingqwa ngale ndlela: inkolelo-mbono yenani esunguliwe kufanele ibuyele emfundisweni yakudala, kucatshangelwa ukuthi kulokhu okubalulekile ekukhiqizeni ekupheleni kwenqubo kukhona insalela noma inani elingaphezulu.

Intuthuko Kamuva

Ngemuva kokugxeka kwe-Sraffa, ukunyakaza kukaMarshallian kwenqaba, inqubo ephinde yakhuthazwa ukugxeka kwe-Keynesian ezingeni lezomnotho omkhulu. Naphezu kwalokhu, indlela ye-Marshallian isaqhubeka ibonakala njengeqinile, ikakhulukazi lapho ibhekisela ekuziphatheni komnotho omkhulu.

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Lokhu kudale imizamo yabanye ababhali, okuhlanganisa no-John Hicks, owafuna ukuvumelanisa la maphuzu amabili okubuka, okukhiqize ucwaningo lwakudala lwe-Keynesian.

Ngakolunye uhlangothi izikhundla zezomnotho zezenhlalakahle, ezingagcini nje ngokuphikelela futhi zahlala, kodwa futhi zihambisana nezikhundla zikaWalras, zandisa ukubaluleka kwayo. Kwenzeka okufanayo nangohlelo lwemali.

Konke lokhu okungenhla kwashiya ifa kumathemba ezomnotho kusukela ngeMpi Yezwe II. Lokhu kubonakala ezincwadini ezethulo zezifundo nasezifundweni ezithuthukile, lapho kucaca khona ukuthi izindlela zomnotho zisekelwe kwizibalo.

https://youtu.be/y_q_lac_BTA

E. Roy Weintraub wathi:

"Sonke singama-neoclassical manje, ngisho nama-Keynesians, ngoba lokho okufundiswa abafundi, ukuthi yini umnotho ojwayelekile, i-neoclassical economics"

Kufanele kucace ukuthi leli thonya alisho ukuthi kunesikole noma inhlangano enezisekelo ezisemthethweni ezimisiwe, lapho wonke umuntu anamathela kuzo ngokuqinile.

U-Weintraub ucabanga ukuthi i-neoclassicism kusukela ngo-1959 iyi-metatheory, okusho ukuthi, isethi yezinkambiso ezingacacile noma incwadi enganqumi mayelana nendlela yokudala amathiyori wezomnotho ayamukelekayo.

Lezi yizimiso ezintathu ezisungulwe ngu-Weintraub:

  1. Izifundo zinokukhethwa okunengqondo.
  2. Izifundo zandisa inzuzo kanye nezinzuzo zezinkampani.
  3. Abantu benza umuntu ngamunye, ngokusekelwe olwazini oluphelele nolufanele.

Ukunyakaza noma izikole ezisekela i-metatheory yilezi:

  1. I-classical Keynesian synthesis, neoclassical synthesis noma neo-Keynesianism.
  2. I-Monetaryism ne-Chicago School of Economics.
  3. Okwakudala okusha.

I-Neoclassical Synthesis 

Ngisho nokugxeka kwe-Keynesian, okusekelwe ezicini ze-macroeconomic, kwafika ukubusa ukubandlulula.

Kodwa-ke, ukugxeka kwe-Keynesian, mayelana nezikhundla ze-macroeconomic, kwakubhekwa njengokubalulekile, umbono we-marginalist waqhubeka nendlela eqinile, ukuchaza ukuziphatha kwe-macroeconomic ezicini ezithile.

Ababhali abanjengoJohn Hicks bahlele umbono obanzi lapho behlanganisa khona imicabango ebalulekile mayelana nemibono emibili, lokhu kwabizwa ngokuthi i-neoclassical synthesis.

 

Phakathi nengxenye emaphakathi yekhulu lama-XNUMX kanye nochungechunge lwemibhalo yakudala ka-Allais, u-Hicks no-Samuelon, ngombono we-Pareto, umbono we-neoclassical wawukhona owahlukanisa, wahlanganisa futhi wahlanza ingxenye enkulu yomnikelo wamaphayona.

Chicago School of Economics

Ukufakwa kwezici eziningana ze-Keynesian emfundisweni, kwaholela ohlotsheni lwenqubomgomo yezomnotho yokungenelela eminyakeni ye-1950 ne-1973, eyagxekwa kakhulu izazi zezomnotho eziningana ze-neoclassical, kuhlanganise noGeorge Stifler, uRobert Lucas noMilton Friedman.

Lokhu kwenzeke ngesikhathi sokunwetshwa okuphezulu komnotho okwenzeke esintwini. Ngo-1973, kwavela isimo esisha ngenxa yenkinga kawoyela yango-1973 kanye nokusimama okwalandela e-US, okwazuza ukugxekwa kwezinqubomgomo ze-neo-Keynesian ezazisetshenziswa esikhathini esidlule.

Lokhu kwavuna umsuka wesikole samanje se-neoclassical, esibizwa nge-monetarism, esathonya iminotho eminingi yamazwe ngamazwe, i-macroeconomies ngonyaka we-1980.

Ai-classicism entsha

Ukugxeka okungenhla kusekelwe ekuntulekeni kokuqiniseka kokuhambisana komsebenzi womuntu, okwaphakanyiswa ama-neoclassicists.

Isikole se-Neoclassical I-New Classicism

Umsunguli we-rational expectations theory, uJohn Muth, ube nalokhu athi:

“Kwesinye isikhathi kuphikiswana ngokuthi ukucatshangelwa kokuhluzeka kwezomnotho kuholela emibonweni engahambelani noma enganele ukuchaza izinto ezibonwayo, ikakhulukazi izinguquko ngokuhamba kwesikhathi. I-hypothesis yethu isekelwe embonweni ophambene ncamashi: ukuthi amamodeli aguquguqukayo awakucabangi ukuhlakanipha okudingekayo”.

Ngokucabangela ukucabanga okuguquguqukayo, u-Muth waphawula lokhu okungenhla. Njengama-neoclassicists, basebenzisa ukuhluzeka kwengqondo ukuze bathole ukulingana okumile, okusho ukugcina izindleko, emgqeni wokugunyazwa wokuvinjelwa kwesabelomali kanye nejika lokunganaki.

I-Muth iphinde isebenzise ukuhluzeka kwengqondo ukuze kuzuzwe ukulingana okuguquguqukayo noma ukuhlela okuguquguqukayo ngokuhamba kwesikhathi. Ngesikhathi esifanayo lapho abadlali ngabanye beshintsha izenzo zabo njengoba bethola ulwazi.

Asikho isizathu esicacile sokukholelwa ukuthi akunjalo. Bazoba semugqeni ophelele okuvumela ukuthi ucabangele futhi uhlele izinguquko kulokho okusebenzisayo nendlela oyisebenzisa ngayo.

Ngokuphambene nokuqagela kwasekuqaleni okugxekiwe, isistimu ayidingi ukuqonda noma ukuqonda okuphelele kwekusasa noma kwesistimu yabalingisi uqobo.

Lolu hlelo aludingi ukubikezela okungapheli noma okungapheli kwesikhathi eside. Lokhu kudinga kuphela ukuzimisela kwamalungu ukuzivumelanisa noshintsho ezimweni ngokubheka ulwazi olutholiwe.

Isiphakamiso sikaMuth saba ne-boom lapho sihlanganiswa nguRobert Lucas, ezifundweni zakhe ngesisekelo se-microeconomics, naphezu kokushicilelwa ngo-1961.

U-Lucas uthi imodeli yomnotho omkhulu kufanele isayinwe kusukela ekuhlanganisweni kwamamodeli wezomnotho omncane.

Lokhu kwakuhlobene nokugxekwa mayelana nohlobo lwenqubomgomo yezomnotho yokungenelela eyenziwa ngo-1950 no-1973, osomnotho be-neoclassical abafana noGeorge Stigler, uMilton Friedman noRobert Lucas.

Ukungenelela kwaphuma esiphakamisweni saseKeynesian esaholela esikhathini sokukhula komnotho okungakaze kubonwe ngaphambili.

Kwenzeke ngokuhambisana nenkinga kawoyela kanye nokwehla kwamandla emali okwalandela e-US, kwazuzisa ukugxekwa kwe-neo-Keynesian.

Lokhu kwavuna ukukhuphuka kwe-monetaryism, eyaqala ukuba nethonya elikhulu kuzinqubomgomo zezomnotho ezinkulu zamazwe ngamazwe.

Lokhu okungenhla kubangele ukudalwa komnotho omusha we-Keynesian, ongafani ne-neo-Keynesianism, odalwe ngabalingiswa abafana:

  • Jordi Gali
  • UPaul Krugman
  • Nouriel Roubini
  • UJoseph Stiglitz
  • Phakathi kwabanye

Izinhlamvu zemali zesikole ze-neoclassical

Ukugxekwa kwe-Contemporary Neoclassicism

Lokhu ukugxeka okuyinhloko okwenziwe mayelana ne-contemporary neoclassicism:

UDavid Charles Cooler

Ucabanga ukuthi lo mqondo akufanele usetshenziswe, uColander uchaza osomnotho besimanje ngokuthi:

“Ukusetshenziswa kwegama elithi neoclassical ukuchaza ezomnotho okwenziwa kulezi zinsuku akusizi nje kuphela, kodwa empeleni kwenza kube nzima kubafundi kanye nomphakathi jikelele ukuqonda ukuthi iyini i-contemporary economics. Igama lingase libe nomsebenzi othile ekuqhathaniseni kwesikhathi, kodwa, uma lizosetshenziswa ngaleyo ndlela, kubaluleke nakakhulu ukuqeda inkathi ye-neoclassical ngesikhathi esithile. Ezomnotho zishintshe kakhulu kusukela ngeminyaka yawo-1870 kuze kube manje, futhi zilokhu zishintsha njalo.»…»Impikiswano yami ngokumelene nokusebenzisa igama elithi neoclassical ukuchaza umnotho wesimanje ukuthi umnotho wesimanje awudingi ukubambelela kulezo zimfanelo eziyisithupha. I-eclectic kakhulu. Ukusuka kude ne-neoclassical economics kungalandelelwa emuva ku-1930s, lapho ingxenye enkulu ye-neoclassical economics yayishiywa osozinkolelo abathuthukile bezama ukwakha umnotho omusha.

Kuningi ukugxekwa komhlaba wonke kwe-contemporary neoclassicism.

Bernard Guerrien

Umsunguli wezomnotho ezibucayi, ukholelwa ukuthi:

“Ithiyori ye-Neoclassical icishe ifane nokuqagela kwe-Scholastics, izibalo zithatha indawo yesiLatini. Endabeni yakhe, ukuqagela kumayelana nokuziphatha kwabantu abacatshangelwayo kuphela (noma “ama-ejenti”), njengoba imingcele ebavezayo ayithathwa ekubonweni noma kudatha etholakalayo, abenza izinqumo “ezimakethe” ezicatshangwayo nakakhulu. . »

Hunt

Ucabanga ukuthi ukugxeka kukaVeblen kuyasebenza ku-neoclassicism yamanje:

"Ukugxeka kukaVeblen nge-neoclassical economics ukuthi yayinombono ophelele nolula wemvelo yomuntu kanye nezikhungo zomphakathi. Ngokuzama ukuchaza yonke into mayelana nokuziphatha okunengqondo, ubugovu, ukukhulisa ukuziphatha, i-neoclassical economics ayichazi lutho. "

isikole se-neoclassical

UMurray Rothbard

Umbhali wase-Austrian, ucabanga ukuthi isikole se-neoclassical sinyamalele kulokho uSchumpeter akubiza ngokuthi umjikelezo oyindilinga:

“Njengoba umnotho wokulingana ngokwencazelo uwumjikelezo wokuziphatha kwerobhothi ngaphandle koshintsho futhi ongenasiphelo, wonke umuntu emakethe unolwazi oluphelele lwamanje nekusasa, futhi ukungaqiniseki okugcwele komhlaba wangempela kuyanyamalala endaweni yesehlakalo. Njengoba kungasekho ukungaqiniseki, inzuzo nokulahlekelwa kuyashabalala, futhi inkampani ngayinye ithola ukuthi amanani ayo alingana ncamashi nezindleko zayo zokukhiqiza” futhi “Akuyona ingozi ukuthi ukukhuphuka kokuvelela kwezomnotho wase-Walrasi kwaqondana nokubala okubonakalayo kwezibalo. isayensi yezenhlalo. Izibalo zinodumo 'njengesayensi yeqiniso', kodwa kunzima ukubala ukungaqiniseki okuyinkimbinkimbi nokuphithene kanye namaphutha angenakugwenywa esenzo somuntu wangempela. Kodwa-ke, uma izenzo ezinjalo nokungaqiniseki sekususiwe kulula ukusebenzisa i-algebra nama-tangents ejometri ukuze kuhlaziywe lokhu kulinganisa okungenangqondo kodwa okubalwe kalula.

Lee Boldman

Ngokombono wefilosofi yokuziphatha, u-Pineda uthi indlela ye-neoclassical iyinkolelo futhi iyisisekelo, igxile ekululameni okuqinile nokujwayelekile okuzama ukuguqula lokho abakubiza ngokuthi "okungcwele", njengokucabangela kwabadlali:

“Kuleli qophelo lapho kulula ukukhumbula ukuthi ukulawula ukuhaha kwethu okumelela ukunqoba okuyinhloko kwesiko phezu “kwesilwane”. Uma lokhu kunjalo, kuwukuhaha okuphinde kumelele enye yezinsongo eziyinhloko empucukweni yethu, ubufandamentali bezomnotho kuwumbono ozama ukuthethelela ukuhaha. Ikakhulukazi, ikhuthaza ubugovu nokuthanda izinto ezibonakalayo. Nokho, nakubantu abangakholwa, ukuzuza ingcebo namandla akusona isisekelo esanele sokuzichaza. Ngenxa yalokho, ubufandamentali bezomnotho buwusongo olukhulu empucukweni yethu. Ukusebenza kwayo ezinqumweni zomphakathi akunakuvumelana nokubaluleka kokuziphatha kwefa lethu lamasiko, nezisekelo zalo zobuKristu, umyalo walo wokuthanda uNkulunkulu nokuthanda umakhelwane wakho njengoba ezithanda yena. Futhi akunakuhlanganiswa namanye amasiko enkolo, kuhlanganise nobuBuddha, nokubiza kwabo ububele nokuhlukana. Ukuthatha into enhle—njengomcabango ohluzekile, noma ukuhlaziywa kwezomnotho, noma izimakethe, noma amalungelo abantu, noma inkululeko, noma umthetho, noma imali, noma ukusetshenziswa—futhi ukwenze kube ngokuphelele kuwumnyombo wokukhulekela izithombe okusha.” (op. cit. iziphetho).

I-Methodological Individualism

Ivuma isikole se-neoclassical futhi ibeka eceleni ngokuphelele isiko, i-psychology yezenhlalo kanye nokutholwe kwisayensi yokuqonda okwenziwa abacwaningi abaningana abaye bahlaziya ukuziphatha kwezomnotho, phakathi kwabo okukhona: UDaniel Kahnean, uDan Ariely no-Amos Tversky.

Kungase kukuthande:  I-Gulf War of the Years 1990 kanye ne-1991

Kuhlanganisa nemibono kaHerbert Simon ngezinqumo ezenziwa abantu ngabanye.

Donald Gordon

iphakamisa:

"Ngicabanga ukuthi kuyamangalisa, uma kuqhathaniswa nesayensi yezemvelo, ukuthi umbono wezomnotho emhlabeni awushintshile kusukela ngekhulu leshumi nesishiyagalombili ... kuwukuhlonipha ukuphakama kwamandla obuhlakani be-positivist."

Francis G. Peabody

Uthi:

“Akukona nje kuphela okungavamile, kuyamangalisa. Umbono uGordon abhekisela kuwo umbono ka-Adam Smith wokuthi abantu bakhulisa abantu abahlanganyela emakethe ekhululekile uma kuqhathaniswa. Iqiniso lokuthi izazi zezomnotho zangaleso sikhathi bathola umhlaba namuhla ufana nalowo wangesikhathi sikaSmith, kunokuba uhloniphe umgomo wabo, kuyisibonelo sokuntula kwabo ukuxhumana neqiniso.

Paul Romer

Ngokuvumelana nababhali bangaphambilini, uthuthukisa ukugxeka okujulile kwesimo samanje se-macroeconomics, ababhali be-orthodox economics futhi ikakhulukazi izazi zezomnotho ze-neoclassical zamuva nje, ngaphandle kokuhlanganisa uMilton Friedman, ambheka njengochwepheshe kanye nabasebenzi bemodeli yezibalo, ephendulayo. eqinisweni lomnotho.

Paul Romer Neoclassical School

Ku-Romer, zikude nezimiso zendlela yesayensi, naphezu kweqiniso lokuthi Umnotho wezenhlalakahle kuyisayensi.

Ngiyagxeka nalabo abasebenzisa lezi zinkolelo-mbono ezaziswa ngosomnotho omkhulu, osomabhange, osozimboni, ochwepheshe nosopolitiki.

USteve Ken

Ungomunye wosomnotho abambalwa abebelindele ukuwohloka okukhulu komnotho. U-Keen ugxeka ithiyori ye-neoclassical ye-macroeconomics, ngenxa yokuntuleka kwayo kwesisekelo esinamandla.

Ngokuka-Keen, izazi zezomnotho ze-neoclassical azikwazi ukunquma iziphazamiso ezidalwe yinkinga yezezimali kusukela ngo-2007 futhi okugcine ngokudangala okukhulu okuqinisekisa ukuthi ama-postulants esikole se-neoclassical awawona ngempela.

Cabanga ukuthi izazi zezomnotho ze-neoclassical zishiseka ngokweqile. Ku-Keen, ukweqa izimiso zethiyori yezomnotho yakudala, awukho ulayini wokuhlinzeka nesidingo, owenziwe ngamajika okunikezwayo ngamanye.

Ngokufanayo, umcabango wokwehla komkhiqizo oseceleni uyamangalisa.

Ngakho-ke, itiyori evamile yokusabalalisa ayikwazanga ukusebenza noma, ngokusho komnikelo we-marginal wezinto.

Amathonya kaKeen ngosomnotho:

  • UHyman Minsky
  • I-Irving Fisher
  • John Maynard Keynes
  • Piero Sraffa
  • UJoseph Alois Schumpeter
  • UFrançois Quesnay

Isikole se-neoclassical, naphezu kokugxekwa, yisona esisetshenziswa kakhulu emakilasini, ngoba sithathwa abaningi njengesisekelo esingavamile sokuhlaziya nokuxazulula izinkinga eziyisisekelo zomnotho.

Okuthunyelwe okuyinhloko kwe-neoclassical economics

Ama-neoclassical asekelwe ezifundweni zawo ekukhethweni kwezinhlobonhlobo eziningi nasekuguquleni okuseceleni njengomgomo wokubala nokulingana okuvamile.

Mayelana nokuziphatha kwabantu nezinkampani, isikole se-neoclassical sisekelwe emibonweni emithathu eyisisekelo:

  • Kokubili umkhiqizi kanye nomthengi banengqondo.
  • Abantu bafuna ukukhulisa ukusetshenziswa kanye nokwaneliseka lapho bethenga izimpahla namasevisi. Izinkampani.
  • Abantu nezinkampani benza ngabodwana, begxile olwazini oluphelele nolufanele.

Ngokufanayo, kukhona ukungezwani ezifundweni zakhe mayelana nezakudala maqondana nethiyori yenani, ukudalwa kwamanani kanye nokusatshalaliswa kwemali engenayo.

ukubaluleka ithiyori

Kosomnotho bakudala inani lezimpahla namasevisi linqunywa izindleko zezinto.

Ngokuphambene nalokho, ama-neoclassicists anquma inani ngokusiza okuthengiswayo okulethwa kumakhasimende kanye nokushoda kwakho okungenzeka kube nakho.

Lapho amakhasimende ezinsiza eziphakeme ezimisele ukusebenzisa imali ethe xaxa, ngakolunye uhlangothi lapho insizakalo noma umkhiqizo indlala, inani lawo liphezulu.

I-Neoclassical school Theory of value

Ukwakhiwa kwamanani kanye nokusabalalisa imali engenayo

Ngaphambi kokuba khona kosomnotho be-neoclassical, imali engenayo yezinto zokukhiqiza yayibhekwa njengenqunywa inqubo yomlando.

Isikole se-neoclassical sivuselele lolu cwaningo futhi sabheka ukuthi ukuhlinzekwa nokufunwa kwemidiya kusungula inani lazo. Ngakho, ukulingana emakethe yezindaba kuqinisekisa imali engenayo kanye nokusatshalaliswa kwayo phakathi kwama-ejenti wezomnotho abanikazi bezindlela zokukhiqiza.

Eminye imibono

Ngaphakathi kwesikole se-neoclassical, kukhona futhi le mibono:

ithiyori yabathengi

Abathengi be-Neoclassical batshala imali yabo ngendlela efinyelela kubo ukuze banelise izidingo eziningi ngangokunokwenzeka. Ukuze enze isinqumo sokuthi uzochitha ini, umthengi usebenzisa ukucabanga kwakhe.

ithiyori yomkhiqizi

Ngendlela efanayo naleyo umthengi, umkhiqizi afuna ngayo ukwandisa ukusetshenziswa kwakhe, umehluko wokuthi akanandaba nokuhlanganiswa kwemikhiqizo, izithakazelo zakhe zokuthola inzuzo enkulu yomkhiqizo ngendlela yokukhiqiza, abasebenzi kanye nezimali ngaphakathi. finyelela.

Ijika lokunganaki limelela umthengi ngokufana nejika le-isoproduct.

ithiyori yemakethe

Njengoba inani lomkhiqizo likhula, inani elifunekayo kulowo mkhiqizo nalo liyakhuphuka futhi liyakhuphuka uma inani lehla.

Ngakho-ke ijika lokufuna liyehla. Ijika lokunikezela liphezulu, ngoba uma inani liphezulu, inani elikhulu elinikezwayo, iphuzu lapho womabili amajika ahlangana khona yilokho okwaziwa ngokuthi ukulingana.

Ngaleso sikhathi umkhiqizi ukhiqiza inani lempahla elenyusa inzuzo futhi umthengi acele imikhiqizo ekhulisa ukusetshenziswa kwakhe.

Marshall General Reflection

Wayeyindoda enengqondo evulekile, enemfundo eqinile yezibalo, umlando, nefilosofi.

UMarshall wagcizelela ezifundweni zakhe ukuthi isayensi yezibalo yayingeyona into eyisisekelo ekuqondeni ezomnotho. Kuye izisekelo zezomnotho bekungadingeka ukuthi ziqondwe yinoma ngubani.

Yingakho abe manqikanqika ngokweqisa kokuthatha isayensi yezomnotho ephokophele kukho.

Ngenxa yalokhu unciphise ukuhumusha kwezibalo ngemibhalo yaphansi elula, ukuze angaphazamisi okuqukethwe kwesakhiwo.



Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kuhambisana nemigomo yethu yezimiso zokuziphatha zokuhlela. Okwamanje sisebenzela ukulungisa nokuthuthukisa okuqukethwe kwethu ngezinye izilimi.

Uma ungumhumushi ogunyaziwe ungasibhalela nokusebenza nathi. (isiJalimane, iSpanishi, isiFulentshi)

Ukuze ubike iphutha lokuhumusha noma ukuthuthukiswa, chofoza lapha.

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