I-Ramayana

Ukuqhathanisa ne I-Odyssey noma i IBhayibheli, iramayana Iwuhlobo lwakudala lwezincwadi zomhlaba. Le nkondlo ichaza ngezigigaba zeNkosana uRama, umzimba kankulunkulu uVishnu, kanye nomkakhe ozinikele uSita nomfowabo othandekayo uLakshmana.

Ibhalwe ngesiSanskrit sakudala futhi yaphakathi kwekhulu lesi-XNUMX nelesi-XNUMX BC. C., i Ramayana iyinkondlo enkulukazi ehlanganisa amavesi angaphezu kuka-24,000. Kuncane kakhulu okwaziwayo ngombhali wombhalo, kodwa ngokwesiko kuthiwa kuValmiki, isihlakaniphi esiphinde sihlonishwe ngokuthuthukisa amafomu enkondlo e-Sanskrit ahlukahlukene.

Okuqukethwe

Isifinyezo kanye nama-Synopsis

UDasharata wayeyinkosi yase-Ayodhya futhi wayenabafazi abathathu namadodana amane. URama wayeyizibulo futhi unina kwakunguKaushalya. U-Bharata wayeyindodana yenkosikazi yesibili nentandokazi kaDasharatha, iNdlovukazi uKaikeyi. Abanye ababili babengamawele, uLakshmana noShatrughna, unina kwakunguSumithra. Edolobheni elingumakhelwane, indodakazi yombusi yayibizwa ngokuthi uSita. Kuthe uma kufika isikhathi sokuthi uSita akhethe umkhwenyana wakhe (emcimbini owawubizwa ngokuthi i-swayamvara), amakhosana ezweni lonke acelwa ukuba abophe umnsalo omkhulu ongeke wawuphakamisa.

Nokho, lapho uRama ewuthatha, akazange nje alengise umnsalo, kodwa wawephula. Ebona lokhu, uSita wabonisa ukuthi ukhethe uRama njengomyeni wakhe ngokufaka umqhele entanyeni yakhe. Uthando lwabo lwaba yisibonelo embusweni wonke njengoba babebuka umbuso ngaphansi kweso elibukhali likayise, inkosi.

Eminyakeni embalwa kamuva, iNkosi uDasharatha yanquma ukuthi sekuyisikhathi sokunikeza isihlalo sayo sobukhosi endodaneni yayo endala uRama futhi ithathe umhlalaphansi ehlathini. Wonke umuntu wabonakala ejabule ngaphandle kweNdlovukazi uKaikeyi, njengoba wayefuna kubuse indodana yakhe uBharata.

Ngenxa yesifungo uDasharatha ayefungile kuye eminyakeni edlule, wathola inkosi ukuba ivume ukuxosha iRama iminyaka eyishumi nane futhi ithweswe umqhele uBharata, naphezu kokuncenga kwenkosi kuye ukuthi angasifaki isicelo esinjalo. INkosi eyayidabukile ayikwazanga ukubhekana neRama futhi kwakuyiNdlovukazi uKaikeyi eyatshela uRama ngomthetho weNkosi. URama, owayehlale elalela, wayeneliswa ukudingiselwa ehlathini. USita noLakshmana bamphelezela ekudingisweni kwakhe.

Kungase kukuthande:  Mahabharata

Ngolunye usuku, uRama noLakshmana balimaza inkosazana ye-rakshasa (idemoni) eyayizama ukuyenga uRama. Wabuya nomfowabo uRavana, umbusi onamakhanda ayishumi eLanka. Eziphindiselela, uRavana wakha icebo lokuthumba uSita ngemva kokufunda ngobuhle bakhe obungenakuqhathaniswa. Wathumela elinye lamademoni akhe elizifihle njengenyamazane yegolide enomlingo ukuze lihehe uSita. Ukuze bamjabulise, uRama noLakshmana bahamba bayozingela inyamazane.

Kodwa-ke, ngaphambi kokwenza lokho, badweba indilinga evikelayo ezungeze uSita futhi bamtshela ukuthi uzophepha inqobo nje uma engasuki kumbuthano. Ngemva kokuhamba kukaRama noLakshmana, uRavana wabonakala eyindoda engcwele ecela izipho. Ngesikhathi uSita ephuma embuthanweni ukuze amnike ukudla, uRavana wambamba wamyisa embusweni wakhe eLanka.

URama wabe esefuna usizo lweqembu lezinkawu ukuze limsize athole uSita. UHanuman, ujenene weqembu lezinkawu angandiza, njengoba uyise enguye viento. Wandizela eLanka futhi wathola uSita ehlathini, wamduduza futhi wamtshela ukuthi uRama uzofika azomsindisa maduze. Amadoda kaRavana athumba uHanuman, futhi uRavana wabayala ukuba babophe umsila kaHanuman ngendwangu futhi bawushise. Umsila uvutha, uHanuman waphunyuka futhi wagxuma indlu ngendlu, wokhela uLanka ngomlilo. Wabe esendiza ebuyela eRama ukuze amtshele ukuthi ukuphi uSita.

URama, uLakshmana kanye nebutho lezinkawu bakha umzila osuka phezulu eNdiya uya eLanka futhi wawelela eLanka lapho kwaqala khona impi ye-cosmic. URama wabulala abafowabo bakaRavana abambalwa futhi ekugcineni wabhekana neRavana enamakhanda ayishumi. Wabulala uRavana, wakhulula uSita futhi ngemva kokuba uSita efakazele ubumsulwa bakhe lapha, babuyela e-Ayodhya lapho uBharata wabuyisela khona umqhele wakhe.

Kungase kukuthande:  I-Divine Comedy

Uhlobo: Epic Poem

Ihlanganiswe ngamavesi angu-24,000 kuma-cantos ayisikhombisa, i-epic iqukethe izimfundiso zezazi zamaHindu zasendulo. Omunye wemibhalo ebaluleke kakhulu yemibhalo yaseNdiya yasendulo, uye waba nomthelela omkhulu kwezobuciko namasiko ezwenikazi laseNdiya naseNingizimu-mpumalanga ye-Asia, nezinguqulo zendaba nazo zivela ohlwini lwezincwadi zamaBuddha kusukela kudala.

Indaba kaRama ibilokhu ixoxwa ngezinguqulo ezisankondlo nezimangalisayo ngabanye ababhali abaphambili baseNdiya futhi nangemifanekiso eqoshiwe elandisayo ezindongeni zethempeli. Ingenye yezinto eziyisisekelo zamasiko akamuva, adlalwa emidlalweni yokudansa, yaseshashalazini yasemakhaya, i-shadow puppetry, kanye nomdlalo waminyaka yonke we-Ram-lila (Rama-play).

Ngaphandle kokuba ngenye yama-classics amakhulu aseNdiya, i Ramayana liphinde libe umbhalo onokubaluleka okujulile kwezenkolo. AmaHindu amaningi ashisekayo akholelwa ukuthi ukufunda incwadi Ramayana iyosula izono futhi ilethe izinzuzo eziningi ezingokomoya. Umlando we Ramayana isisabalele kulo lonke elaseNingizimu Asia, yaba indaba eyigugu emazweni anjengeBurma, Thailand, Cambodia, Indonesia kanye neMalaysia.

Personajes

  • Igatsha: Uyiqhawe le-epic kaRamayana, ukuzalwa kukankulunkulu uVishnu. Indodana endala nentandokazi kaDasaratha, iNkosi yase-Ayodhya, iyinkosana eqotho futhi ethandwa kakhulu ngabantu. Udingisiwe e-Ayodhya ngenxa yetulo likamama wakhe ongamzali, uKaikeyi.
  • sita: unkosikazi nendodakazi kaRama wenkosi uJanaka waseMithila. I-Sita iyisibonelo sokuhlanzeka kwabesifazane kanye nobuhle.
  • I-Lakshmana: umfowabo omncane kaRama. Ethembeke ngokuphelele kuRama, ukhetha ukuhamba noRama noSita lapho bedingisiwe e-Ayodhya.
  • Ravana: uyinkosi yaseLanka futhi unamakhanda ayi-10 nezingalo ezingu-20. Wathola usizo kuNkulunkulu uBrahma lokuthi akanakubulawa onkulunkulu, amademoni, noma imimoya, ngemva kokuphenduka kanzima iminyaka eyizi-10,000 XNUMX. Ngemva kokuthola umvuzo wakhe kuBrahma, uRavana waqala ukugasela ezweni futhi waphazamisa imisebenzi yezazi zamaHindu.
  • I-Dasarath: uyiNkosi yase-Ayodhya, uyise kaRama.
  • I-Kausalya: Ungunina kaRama, unkosikazi oyinhloko kaDasaratha.
  • Kaikeyi: ungumkaDasaratha kanye nosingamama kaRama. Ufuna ukuthi uRama adingiselwe ehlathini futhi indodana yakhe uBharata inikezwe umbuso esikhundleni sayo.
  • Bharatha: uyindodana yesibili kaDasaratha. Lapho ezwa ukuthi unina uKaikeyi wayephoqelele uRama ekudingisweni, okwenza uDasaratha afe ngenhliziyo ephukile, ugijima ephuma esigodlweni futhi uyofuna iRama.
  • I-Sumithra: Ungunkosikazi kaDasharatha kanye nomama wamawele uLakshmana noSatrughna.
  • I-Hanuman: iyinkawu ehlakaniphile futhi ehlakaniphile esiza uRama emzamweni wakhe wokunqoba uRavana futhi ahlenge uSita.
  • Okuphakanyisiwe: Ungumbusi wombuso wezinkawu. Umfowabo u-Bali wathatha isihlalo sakhe sobukhosi, kodwa uRama uyamsiza ukuba anqobe umgadli ukuze athole usizo lwakhe lokuthola uSita.
Kungase kukuthande:  I-Aeneid

I-Análisis

Ku Ramayana, okuhle nokubi kungamandla aphikisana kakhulu, avalelwe empini yaphakade. Avame ukuvezwa njengomehluko phakathi komuntu/unkulunkulu kanye ne-rakshasa. I-Rakshasas ibonisa inqwaba yezenzo ezimbi (ubudlova, izifiso ezihlambalazayo, ukunganaki ngokobulili), kuyilapho abantu abalungile beyisibonelo sazo zonke izimfanelo ezinhle. Nakuba okuhle nokubi kuphikisana, i Ramayana kusikisela ukuthi azizalwanga kodwa ziwumphumela wokuzikhethela. Amanye ama-rakshasa asephenduke amademoni njengesijeziso sesiphambeko, kuyilapho abantu abalungile bangaphambili bengakwazi ukuguqula ububi lapho bekhetha ukushiya indlela ye-dharma.


Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kuhambisana nemigomo yethu yezimiso zokuziphatha zokuhlela. Okwamanje sisebenzela ukulungisa nokuthuthukisa okuqukethwe kwethu ngezinye izilimi.

Uma ungumhumushi ogunyaziwe ungasibhalela nokusebenza nathi. (isiJalimane, iSpanishi, isiFulentshi)

Ukuze ubike iphutha lokuhumusha noma ukuthuthukiswa, chofoza lapha.

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