I-Goodwill: Kuyini?, Umsuka, Izibonelo nokunye

La inani elidlulile, umqondo wezomnotho we-Marxist owathi uchaza ukuntengantenga kwesimiso esicebile. Enamathela embonweni kaDavid Ricardo yezabasebenzi, uMarx wayekholelwa ukuthi umsebenzi womuntu uwumthombo wenani lempahla. Kulesi sihloko uzofunda kabanzi mayelana liyini inani le-surplus, umsuka wayo nokunye okuningi.

Inzuzo enkulu

Incazelo

I-Surplus value, umqondo wezomnotho we-Marxist owathi uchaza ukungazinzi kwesistimu yonxiwankulu. Enamathela emcabangweni kaDavid Ricardo wenani labasebenzi, uKarl Marx wayekholelwa ukuthi umsebenzi womuntu uwumthombo wenzuzo yezomnotho. Unxiwankulu ukhokhela abasebenzi bakhe imali encane kunaleyo umsebenzi wabo oyengezele yona empahleni, imvamisa eyanele ukusekela isisebenzi ezingeni lokuziphilisa.

Nokho, ngokwenani elivamile lomsebenzi okhuthele, lesi sinxephezelo, ngokombono kaMarxist, simelela ingxenye nje, elingana nendlela yesisebenzi yokuziphilisa. Okunye "imisebenzi eyengeziwe" futhi inani elidala "inani elingaphezulu." Ukuze enze inzuzo, uMarx wathi, ingxiwankulu ithatha leli nani eliyinsalela, kanjalo ixhaphaze abakhuthele.

I-Goodwill ichaza inani lempahla noma insiza eyeqa ingxenye esetshenziswa ngokuqhubekayo. Lokhu kungabhekisela enanini elikhulu lezinto ezahlukene, okuhlanganisa imali engenayo, inzuzo, imali enkulu, kanye nempahla. Ngomongo wohlu lwezimpahla, imali enqwabelene ichaza imikhiqizo ehlala emashalofini esitolo, ingathengwanga.

Ezimweni zesabelomali, ukuzuza kwekhephithali kwenzeka lapho imali engenayo idlula izindleko ezikhokhiwe. Lokhu kusetshenziswa kwesabelomali kungenzeka nangaphakathi kohulumeni uma kunemali esele yentela ngemuva kokuba zonke izinhlelo zikahulumeni sezixhaswe ngokugcwele.

I-surplus ayifiseleki ngempela. Isibonelo, umkhiqizi oweqa ngokweqile isidingo esilindelekile somkhiqizo othile angase adale amayunithi amaningi kakhulu anganikeziwe, anganikela ekulahlekeni kwezimali kwekota noma konyaka. Insalela yemikhiqizo yesikhashana efana nezinhlamvu ingabangela ukuguga okungabhubhi, njengoba izinto ezimoshekayo nezinto ezingadayiswa.

Uyini umsuka womqondo wenani elingaphezulu?

Kumelwe kukhunjulwe ukuthi ubunxiwankulu bunokulahlwa okuhlukahlukene, kuhlanganise nobuMarx. UKarl Marx owaziwa kakhulu uwufake okokuqala lo mbono kuma-diatribes akhe. Nakuba bekunganqunywanga ngokucacile, ababhali bangaphambili abanjengo-Adam Smith noma uDavid Ricardo okukhulunywe ngaye ngenhla base bevele bebodwa kuleli gama. UMarx ngokwakhe wagomela ezigabeni ezihlukahlukene ukuthi lo mbono uthuthukiswe kuDavid Ricardo.

UDavid Ricardo nguye owasebenzisa ngesikhathi esifanayo i-value hypothesis maqondana nomsebenzi. Kodwa uKarl Marx uthathwa njengowokuqala ukusebenzisa i- ithiyori yenani le-surplus Njengoba incazelo ayinikezile kuyiyona ephathwa namuhla ekuphileni kwansuku zonke, ekuqaleni wafaka umehluko phakathi kwamandla okusebenza nomsebenzi, lapho edalula khona incazelo yenani elingaphezulu futhi ephetha inkolelo-mbono yenani ngomsebenzi, into ethize. ukuthi ochwepheshe ababeka ngaphambi kukaMarx abakwazanga ukuqeda:

Ukukhiqizwa konxiwankulu akukhona nje ukukhiqizwa kwempahla: empeleni kuwukukhiqiza inani elingaphezulu.

UKarl Marx

Njengamanje, isisho senani elingaphezulu sisetshenziswa kakhulu njengokwehliswa kokuhle, njengefulethi, unyaka nonyaka, kuye ngokuthi ikuphi, noma ukuthi izinga lomhlaba lapho wakhiwe khona, lihlala lilinganisa. inani layo. , okuwukuthi, ifulethi okwaxoxwa ngalo ngamadola angu-100.000, ngonyaka lingabuyekezwa futhi libize cishe amadola angu-60.000 ngaphezu kwenani langaphambilini. Kumele kuqashelwe ukuthi inani lamahhala liyintela ephethe ukwabiwa kwenzuzo enkulu.

Kungase kukuthande:  Izindlela Zokukhokha: Ziyini? Izibonelo nokunye

Libalwa kanjani inani elingaphezulu?

Ukusebenzisa ukugxeka kukaMarx kwe umnotho Kwezepolitiki, abasebenzi abaqashwe ezimbonini ezahlukahlukene bangabala inani lomsebenzi wabo nokuthi leli nani lihlukaniswa kanjani phakathi komqashi nesisebenzi. Kuyenzeka ukubala isikhathi sokusebenza esingenakugwenywa yinyunyana kanye nesikhathi esilinganiselwe somsebenzi, amaholo abasebenzi kanye neholo lomqashi endaweni yabo ethile yokusebenza.

Konxiwankulu, lolo wulwazi oluyingozi kakhulu isisebenzi esingalufunda. Idalula ukuxhashazwa konxiwankulu ngendlela exhumene kakhulu nesimo somuntu siqu somzabalazo wezigaba. Idalula ubunxiwankulu hhayi ngendlela evamile noma engabonakali, kodwa ngendlela yomuntu siqu ngokushesha kakhulu ngokudalula ukuxhashazwa kwangempela okwenzeka endaweni yokusebenza ngokwayo.

Ukubalwa kwenzuzo enkulu

Masisebenzise uviniga womkhiqizo wezohwebo. Sizothatha ngokuthi isitshalo sikhiqiza imikhiqizo ehlukahlukene ehlukene, okuhlanganisa isoso yama-apula yaleyo nkampani, i-apula cider, nezinhlobo ezahlukene zikaviniga. Ngaphakathi kwesitshalo kukhona okungenani umugqa ongu-1 onikezelwe kuviniga omhlophe ongu-128 oz.

Lo mugqa kufanele uqale ngokukhiqizwa kwenqwaba kaviniga, othunyelwa kulayini wamabhodlela kanye nokupakisha futhi uhamba ngesivinini esingamabhodlela angama-50 ngomzuzu futhi ulayini usebenza u-72.5% wosuku lwebhizinisi ngokwesilinganiso (27.5 % wosuku lwebhizinisi usuku lwebhizinisi ulayini uphansi ngenxa yokunakekelwa komshini, ukuhlolwa kwekhwalithi, njll.). Kukhona amashifu amabili wamahora ayi-12 nsuku zonke, ngakho-ke isitshalo sivulwa 24/7.

kubo bonke Inqubo ekhiqizayoNgakho-ke, ukusuka ekuhlanganiseni uviniga ukuya ekufakeni amabhodlela nokupakisha nokuthunyelwa, ake sithi kukhona abasebenzi abayi-15 kwishifu ngayinye yesamba sabasebenzi abangama-30 ngosuku lwesonto kulowo mugqa owenza lowo mkhiqizo. Umsebenzi ngamunye uhola isamba esingu-$20 ngehora (iholo lemali kanye nesinxephezelo esihlehlisiwe njengomshuwalense wezempilo, 401K, njll.).

Ibhodlela ngalinye le-128-ounce likaviniga lingu-$2.98 kumthengisi ojwayelekile. Kulokhu, yilokho okubiza umkhiqizo umthengi esitolo esikhulu. Isuphamakethe imaka imikhiqizo eyakhiwe ibhizinisi lezinkampani zangaphandle ngesilinganiso esimaphakathi sama-25%. Lokho kusho ukuthi ebhodleleni ngalinye likaviniga elikhiqizwa futhi lidayiselwe esitolo esikhulu, bathola cishe u-$2.23 kusukela ekusungulweni okushiwo.

Kungase kukuthande:  Konke Mayelana Nenguquko Yezimboni Yesithathu

Ulayini usebenza ngama-72.5% osuku ngalunye lwamahora angama-24, ngakho ulayini usebenza amahora ayi-17.4 kwangu-24 nsuku zonke. Lokho kusho ukuthi ulayini ukhiqiza amabhodlela angama-52.200 ngosuku lwebhizinisi (amahora angu-17.4 x 60 = amaminithi angu-1044; amabhodlela angu-50 ngomzuzu x 1044 imizuzu = amabhodlela angu-52.200). Njengoba abathengisi abaningi kufanele bathengise umkhiqizo ofanayo ngentengo efanayo, singacabanga ukuthi amanye amakhasimende kaviniga awuthengisa ngentengo efanayo nge-markup efanayo.

Inzuzo yemali ebalulekile

Lokho kusho ukuthi imali ephelele evela kulowo mugqa ilinganiselwa ku-$116,406 yenkampani. Isilinganiso sezindleko eziphelele zezinto ezisetshenziswa ekukhiqizeni e-United States. (Kufaka uphethiloli, izinsiza, Izinto eziwumbala, ukupakishwa, njll.) cishe ama-55%. Isilinganiso sentela yenkampani yase-US cishe singama-21%.

Isilinganiso sentela yomholo cishe si-7%. Izindleko ezimaphakathi zokwehla kwenani zilinganiselwa ku-0.9%. Sekuhlanganiswe ndawonye lokhu cishe kungama-85%; ngesilinganiso esimaphakathi senzuzo esingaba ngu-15% e-United States.

Ukugxekwa komqondo yenani elingaphezulu

Ngokusho kwesazi sezomnotho uFred Moseley, ithiyori yezomnotho ye-neoclassical yathuthukiswa, ngokwengxenye, ukuze ihlasele wona kanye umbono wabasebenzi abangaphezulu kanye nokuphikisa ngokuthi abasebenzi bathola lonke inani eliqukethwe emizamweni yabo yokudala.

Okunye ukugxeka okuyisisekelo kwesimanje kwethiyori kaMarx kungatholakala emisebenzini kaPearson, Dalton, Boss, Hodgson, kanye noHarris. Umhlaziyi we-Marxist uJohn Roemer ubekela inselele lokho akubiza ngokuthi inkolelo-mbono kaMarxist eyisisekelo yokuthi ukuba khona kwemisebenzi eningi kuyisimo esidingekayo nesanele senzuzo. Ufakazela ukuthi le theory ingamanga ngokunengqondo.

Kodwa-ke, uMarx ngokwakhe akazange aphikisane ngokuthi umsebenzi owengeziwe wawuyisimo esinengqondo sokuthola inzuzo, isikhundla esiyisisekelo esingenakugwenywa. U-Morishima wayehlose ukukhombisa ukuthi, kusukela ebukhoneni benzuzo evezwa ngokwemibandela yamanani, singakwazi ukuthola ubukhona bevelu engaphezulu njengokulandelanisa okunengqondo. Ezinye izizathu bekuwukuthi:

  • Inzuzo ekusebenzeni konxiwankulu "ekugcineni" kwakuyisimangalo sezezimali kuphela emikhiqizweni yabasebenzi nasezinsizeni ezenziwa yilabo abangayikhiqizi leyo mikhiqizo namasevisi, ngenxa yobunikazi babo bempahla yangasese (impahla enkulu).
  • LUkuzuza kungenziwa kuphela ezinqubweni zebhizinisi, okungase kube kude kakhulu esikhaleni kanye nesikhathi emsebenzini wokubambisana lezo zinzuzo ekugcineni eziwucabangayo.
  • Umsebenzi owengeziwe wawungenziwa, ngaphandle kwalokhu kuletha inzuzo nhlobo, ngoba imikhiqizo yalowo msebenzi ayizange ithengiswe.
  • Inzuzo ingenziwa ngaphandle kwanoma yimuphi umsebenzi ohilelekile, njengalapho isiqeshana somhlaba esingathuthukisiwe sithengiswa ngenzuzo.
  • Izinzuzo zingenziwa uchwepheshe ozisebenzelayo ongazange enze umsebenzi owengeziwe komunye umuntu, noma afaneleke emsebenzini owengeziwe.
Kungase kukuthande:  Iyini ingxenye yamazwe ngamazwe yezabasebenzi?

Ngaphezu kwalokho, inani lomsebenzi ongakhokhelwa, wokuzithandela kanye nomsebenzi wasekhaya owenziwa ngaphandle kwebhizinisi kanye umkhakha, njengoba kwembulwa ukuhlola okusetshenziswa isikhathi, kusikisela kwabanye abalwela amalungelo abesifazane (isb., uMarilyn Waring noMaria Mies) ukuthi abalandeli bakaMarx kungenzeka baye bakweqa kakhulu ukubaluleka komsebenzi onqwabelene ezimbonini owenziwa izisebenzi eziholayo, ngenxa yokuthi ikhono lokwenza lowo msebenzi osalayo.

Ngamanye amazwi, umsebenzi owenziwa ezindlini, imvamisa yilabo abangawadayisi amandla abo okusebenza kumafemu onxiwankulu, ufaka isandla empilweni yabasebenzi bonxiwankulu abakwazi ukwenza imisebenzi yasendlini encane. Mhlawumbe impikiswano ngalo mqondo ihlanekezelwa umehluko omkhulu maqondana nomhlaba womsebenzi: eYurophu, e-United States, Japan kanye ne-Australia, i amazwe asanda kuthuthukiswa kwezimboni kanye namazwe ampofu.

Umkhuba ojwayelekile ekuhlukaniseni abasebenzi emhlabeni wonke owobuchwepheshe obuphezulu, ezezimali, kanye nezinsizakalo zokumaketha ezizotholakala emazweni acebile, anamalungelo amaningi empahla yobuhlakani, kanye nokukhiqizwa okungokoqobo kwangempela emazweni aneholo eliphansi. . Ngokuphumelelayo, izazi zezomnotho ze-Marxist zithi, lokhu kusho ukuthi umsebenzi wezisebenzi emazweni acebile waziswa kakhulu kunomsebenzi wezisebenzi zasemazweni ampofu.

Nokho, babikezela ukuthi esikhathini eside somlando, ukusebenza komthetho wenani kuzothambekela ekulinganiseni izimo zokukhiqiza nokudayisa ezingxenyeni ezihlukahlukene zomhlaba.

Isibonelo sokubala umusa

U-Hanna wayelinde umugqa omusha wezicathulo eziphakeme ezizophuma ezinokubuyekezwa okujabulisayo kwenduduzo nesitayela. Usezwile okuningi ngabo futhi uyazi ukuthi badayisa ngokushesha kangakanani. Ezinyangeni ezimbalwa ezedlule, wonge imadlana emalini yakhe yokuhola futhi wayibekela eceleni izicathulo zakhe ezintsha. Unquma ukuthi uzosebenzisa imali efika ku-$100.00 ipheya lezicathulo. Lapho efika esitolo, ujabulela ukuthola ukuthi ipheya ngalinye lingama-$55.00 kuphela.

Uma ushiya isitolo nezicathulo esandleni, manje usunemali enqwabelene ka-$45 kubhajethi yabathengi. Ngakolunye uhlangothi, inkampani ikhiqiza lezi zicathulo ngezindleko ze-$ 15.00 nazo zonke izindleko ezifakiwe, okuphansi kakhulu abangakwamukela isicathulo ngasinye kungaba u-$ 30.00 kodwa ngokuphendula isidingo, bakhuphule intengo ku-$ 45.00, ngebhangqa ngalinye abalithengile. ithengiswe inkampani ibe nensada yabakhiqizi engu-$15.00.

Izinsalela zivame ukwenzeka ngenxa yokuthi amasu awodwa okuhlola inani nentengo awaphelele futhi adala ukucabangela ngokweqile. Lezi zilinganiso zingaba nemiphumela engemihle futhi emihle. Ukuzuza kwesabelomali kuhle ngoba imali engenayo idlula izindleko futhi ibhizinisi linenzuzo.

Ngokombono wokukhiqiza, ukukhiqizwa kwensalela kusho ukuthi imali eyengeziwe kanye nomsebenzi kwasetshenziswa ukukhiqiza izimpahla ezeqa isidingo. Ngamanye amazwi, inkampani ikhiqize i-inventory eyengeziwe kunesidingo esidingekayo. Manje kungase kudingeke unikeze imikhiqizo ngamanani ancishisiwe noma uhlale kuwo isikhashana.


Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kuhambisana nemigomo yethu yezimiso zokuziphatha zokuhlela. Okwamanje sisebenzela ukulungisa nokuthuthukisa okuqukethwe kwethu ngezinye izilimi.

Uma ungumhumushi ogunyaziwe ungasibhalela nokusebenza nathi. (isiJalimane, iSpanishi, isiFulentshi)

Ukuze ubike iphutha lokuhumusha noma ukuthuthukiswa, chofoza lapha.

I-Creative Stop
IK4
Thola ku-Inthanethi
Abalandeli Abakwe-Inthanethi
ukuyicubungula kalula
imanuwali encane
a ukwenza kanjani
I-TypeRelax
LavaMagazine