Mahabharata

El Mahabharata iyinkondlo yasendulo yamaSanskrit echaza iMpi yaseKurukshetra yasenganekwaneni phakathi kwamaqembu amabili abazalwane abavela eNkosini Bharata: amaPandava namaKauravas. Kubhekwa njengobalulekile ngokomlando esikweni lamaHindu kangangokuthi ngezinye izikhathi kuthiwa "iVeda yesihlanu." AmaVeda amane ayimibhalo eyisisekelo yobuHindu, echaza izimiso zokholo nezimfundiso zokuphila.

Isifinyezo kanye nama-Synopsis

Ihlukaniswe izingxenye eziyishumi nesishiyagalombili, Mahabharata iqala ngemvelaphi yemindeni okugxilwe kuyo encwadini. USauti, umxoxi wezindaba obuya emhlatshelweni, ulandisa indaba yemibhalo engcwele njengoba eyikhumbula. Yindaba yabantu abaphuma kumbusi wasendulo uBharata.

UShantanu, inkosi yaseHastinapura, ushade nonkulunkulukazi womfula iGanges. Uzala uDevata, umfana ohlakaniphile nonamandla oyindlalifa yesihlalo sobukhosi. Kodwa-ke, ngemva kokufa kukaGanga futhi ebuyela ebunkulunkulu, uShantanu ushada nowesifazane ogama lakhe linguSatyavati, onendodana okuthiwa uVisasa. Umthembisa ukuthi indodana yakhe yesikhathi esizayo iyoba inkosi. Banezingane ezimbili, kodwa bobabili bashona besebancane.

USatyavati ucela uVasasa ukuthi abelethe izingane nabafelokazi bendodana yakhe efile, ukuze agcine isimangalo sakhe sobukhosi. Wenza kanjalo, futhi omunye wabafelokazi uzala umntwana oyimpumputhe okuthiwa uDritharashtra, futhi udadewabo uzala intombazane enesikhumba esiphaphathekile okuthiwa uPandu. Ngenxa yobumpumputhe bakhe, uDritharashtra akafaneleki ukuba yinkosi, futhi uPandu uba yinkosi.

Nokho uPandu uthukiwe futhi uzofa uma elala nomuntu wesifazane. Ushada noKunti, obusiswe ngokuzala okumangalisayo. Banamadodana amathathu: uYudhishthira onesibindi, uBhima onamandla kanye neqhawe u-Arjuna. Nokho, unendodana yesine eyimfihlo, uKarna, ayeyishiyile ngaphambi kokuba bashade.

UMadri, unkosikazi wesibili kaPandu, naye uzala amadodana amabili, amawele uNakula noSahadev. Lezi zingane ezinhlanu zaziwa ngokuthi amaPandava. INkosi uPandu ishona ngemva kokushada noMadri, futhi umfowabo oyimpumputhe uba inkosi. AbakwaPandava bashada nowesifazane ofanayo, uDraupadi, abamphatha njengomfazi wabo ovamile.

Kungase kukuthande:  I-Divine Comedy

UDritharashtra nomkakhe, uGandhari, banamadodana ayikhulu, aziwa ngokuthi amaKaurava, aholwa izibulo, uDuryodhana. Lezi zizwe ezimbili ziba yizimbangi ezinonya njengoba amaPandava ezuza uthando lwabantu ngamandla abo, umusa, nezenzo zabo ezinhle. I-Kauravas ibonakala njengomona nobubi.

UDuryodhana ujoyina umfowabo kaPandavas onomona uKarna kanye nomalume wakhe uShakuni ukuxosha amaPandavas embusweni. Baphonsela inselelo izimbangi zabo kumdlalo wamadayisi futhi bakwazi ukunqoba amaPandavas ngokukopela. I-Pandavas ilahlekelwa yikho konke, kuhlanganise nomkakhe uDraupadi, eya eKauravas futhi iya ekudingisweni.

I-Kauvaras igwebe amaPandavas ekudingisweni iminyaka eyishumi nambili, kulandelwa unyaka wokungaziwa nokulahlwa. Nokho amaKauvara awahlelile ukuthi izimbangi zawo zivele zinyamalale enkundleni. Bathumela ababulali abaningi ngemva kwabo futhi bazama ukubabulala ekudingisweni.

Kodwa-ke, abakwaPandava bakwazi ukuphunyuka isikhathi ngasinye, bethola isiphephelo komalume wabo ozala umama, u-Lord Sri Krishna. Iminyaka eyishumi nantathu iyadlula futhi amaPandavas aphinde athole isabelo sawo sombuso. Nokho abakwaKauvara abahlelile ukuhlonipha ingxenye yabo yesivumelwano. Benqaba ukunikeza izwe, okuholela eMpini Enkulu yaseKurukshetra. Le mpi yama-epic yenzeka emasimini omndeni wakwaKuru futhi ithatha izinsuku eziyishumi nesishiyagalombili.

Lesi siqephu sokulandisa siyisisekelo sombhalo ongcwele wamaHindu owaziwa ngokuthi iBhagavad Gita. AbakwaPandava bagcina bephumelele, bebanga izwe lomndeni wabo, kepha abangane babo, izihlobo nabathandekayo babo babulawa empini. Indaba iphetha ngovivinyo ezulwini, njengoba behlanjululwa ezonweni zabo futhi bahlanganyele nabafowabo abafela empini ngemva kokufa, njengoba uSauti evala ukulandisa kwakhe.

Uhlobo: Epic

Ngendlela yayo yokubhala engafinyeziwe, le nkondlo inemigqa eyizi-100.000 ubude, okuyenza ibe yinde kunazo zonke izinkondlo ezidumile zasendulo. Nokho, ngokungafani nemibhalo yamaVeda, ebhekwa njengedlule futhi yakopishwa ngendlela emsulwa phakathi namakhulu eminyaka, i-Mahabharata ayizange ibonakale ekuqaleni njengencwadi ebhaliwe.

Kungase kukuthande:  I-Aeneid

Esikhundleni salokho, inkondlo yadluliselwa ngesiko elidluliselwa ngomlomo, okusho ukuthi inguqulo esinayo manje iyinto ye-hodgepodge yezinguqulo ezihlukahlukene nezibuyekezo ezenziwe ababalisi bayo. Kulokhu, i-Mahabharata ifana ne-epic yempi yamaGreki, i-Iliad, eyadluliselwa ngomlomo yaze yazibophezela ekubhaleni cishe ngekhulu lesi-XNUMX BC. C., cishe ngesikhathi esifanayo lapho iMahabharata yaqala khona ukumila.

Lesi siko somlomo sibonakala embhalweni weMahabharata ngokwawo, njengoba indaba ngayinye exoxwayo ixoxwa ngumuntu oyedwa komunye. I-epic yonke ngokwayo ifakwe kuhlaka njengoba ishiwo umxoxi oyedwa.

Izifundo ze-Mahabharata zivame ukukhomba ukuthi umbhalo uhloswe ukuba ube yi-encyclopedic, uthinta yonke into kusukela ezimisweni ze-dharma kuya emisebenzini yenkosi kanye nesimo sangempela sabesifazane. Futhi nakuba kuwukuphela kombhalo wamaHindu wasendulo othatha isimo sokulandisa, ulayishwe izingxenye ze-didactic nezefilosofi, kungakhathaliseki ukuthi usesimweni sezinganekwane ezingokomfanekiso noma izinkulumo ze-didactic phakathi kwabalingiswa bayo. Ngakho, i-Mahabharata iyingxenye yenkondlo eyingqopha-mlando, ingxenye yencwadi yefilosofi yamaHindu.

Personajes

  • I-Yudhishtra: Omdala kubazalwane basePandava. Ungumholi wabo njengenkosi nomkhuzi empini.
  • I-Arjuna: Omunye wabazalwane basePandava. Ubizwa ngokuthi "umnqobi wengcebo." Uyiqhawe elingcono kunabo bonke abazalwane, njengoba aqeqeshwa umphikisi wakhe wezempi wesikhathi esizayo uDrona. Ungumcibisheli onekhono futhi odumile kwabesifazane.
  • I-karma: Ngokwezobuchwepheshe ungomdala ezinganeni zakwabo zasePandava, kodwa wakhuliswa abazali abangabazali ngakho akabhekwa njengengxenye yomndeni.
  • I-Dhritarashtra: Inkosi eyimpumputhe yaseHastinapur ekholelwa ukuthi ubumpumputhe bayo buyisiqalekiso kuye, izala izingane eziyi-100 ezingamademoni enyameni.
  • Draupadi: Unkosikazi wabazalwane abahlanu bakwaPandava, uDraupadi uyinkosazana edumile ebhekwa kabanzi njengowesifazane omuhle kakhulu emhlabeni.
  • I-Duryodhana: Umholi wabazalwane abangamademoni abayi-100 abazalwa yinkosi eyimpumputhe uDhritarashtra, uDuryodhana uvezwa njengokwephulwa okusobala kwe-dharma.
  • Bhimah: Onamandla kumaPandavas, uBhima uvame ukuba ngumfowethu obulala izitha ezinkulu zabazalwane futhi abavikele kubahlaseli abanekhono kakhulu.
  • I-Krishna: Unkulunkulu osiza amaPandava kuwo wonke umlando ubasiza ukuba baqonde i-dharma yabo njengababusi nabalweli empini.
  • I-Drone: Ngesikhathi sendaba, uDrona uyindoda eneminyaka engu-85 ubudala elwa njengomfana oneminyaka engu-16 ubudala.
  • UVisa: Njengoba kubonisiwe endabeni, u-Vyasa ungumlandisi we-epic ye-Mahabharata, ebeka indaba ku-Ganesha.
Kungase kukuthande:  I-Ramayana

I-Análisis

Naphezu kobukhulu nobunkimbinkimbi bayo, i-Mahabharata ihlola kakhulu indikimba eyodwa enkulu: ukugcinwa kwenkonzo engcwele, ebizwa ngokuthi i-dharma. Zonke ezinye izingqikithi ezinendikimba emsebenzini zihlobene nombuzo wokulalelwa noma ukunganakwa kwe-dharma. Abalingiswa abenelisa lokho okushiwo yi-dharma ekugcineni bayavuzwa, kuyilapho labo abenqaba ngamabomu ukulalela i-dharma yabo bajeziswa nakanjani.

Ngokomthetho wamaHindu, umuntu ngamunye unendawo ekhethekile emphakathini futhi kufanele aziphathe ngokuvumelana nezimfuneko zaleso sikhundla, esibizwa ngokuthi isigaba. E-Mahabharata, zonke izinhlamvu ezibalulekile zingabe-Kshatriya noma i-warrior caste. Abantu abafana noYudhishthira, u-Arjuna, uBhima noDuryodhana kumele balalele i-dharma yamaqhawe. Kumele babe nesibindi, bahlonipheke futhi bahloniphe abamelene nabo.

Akumelwe neze basebenzise ngokungafanele; isibonelo, ukuhlasela isitha esingahlomile noma esingakulungele. U-Duryodhana, isibonelo, ulwa kahle no-Bhima, omshaya ngokungafanele "ngaphansi kwebhande" emdlalweni wabo. Ekupheleni kokulandisa, siyabona ukuthi u-Duryodhana, naphezu kwezenzo zakhe ezivame ukubi nezingabonisi umusa, uzuza ukwamukelwa ezulwini ngoba wayehlala ebambelele ekhodini yeqhawe noma i-dharma.


Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kuhambisana nemigomo yethu yezimiso zokuziphatha zokuhlela. Okwamanje sisebenzela ukulungisa nokuthuthukisa okuqukethwe kwethu ngezinye izilimi.

Uma ungumhumushi ogunyaziwe ungasibhalela nokusebenza nathi. (isiJalimane, iSpanishi, isiFulentshi)

Ukuze ubike iphutha lokuhumusha noma ukuthuthukiswa, chofoza lapha.

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