I-Old State House

La I-Old State House Ingesinye sezakhiwo zomlando eziyinhloko e-United States ezinokubaluleka okukhulu namuhla neminyaka engaphezu kuka-300. Lesi sakhiwo esiyingqopha-mlando esisenkabeni yeBoston futhi sizungezwe izakhiwo eziphakeme, sikhuleka phambi komlando wezwe njengenye yezindawo ezibalulekile emlandweni wokuzimela kwe-United States.

Ukuvakashela i-Old State House kungenye yezimpawu zomhlaba ezinkulu emzileni we-Freedom Trail, ocishe ube ngamamayela angu-2.5 (4.0 km) ubude. Kubathandi bezokuvakasha, abathanda umlando waseMelika, nalabo abafuna ukufunda okwengeziwe ngale ndawo yomlando, nakhu konke mayelana nendlu Yesifunda Esidala.

Ingakanani iminyaka yeNdlu Yesifunda Esidala?

Nakuba isakhiwo samanje se-Old State House siye salungiswa phakathi neminyaka, isakhiwo sesisekelo saqala cishe ngo-1712-1713, okwenza sibe neminyaka engama-308-309 ubudala. Lesi sakhiwo savela njengesidingo ngemva kokuba iTown-House yokuqala eBoston eyayakhiwe ngokhuni, eyakhiwa ngo-1657, yashiswa ngomlilo ngo-1711.

Umakhi wokuqala weNdlu Yesifunda Esidala e-Boston kwakunguRobert Twelves, owakha ngo-1712 isakhiwo esiyisisekelo lesi sakhiwo esimi kuso namuhla. Ngemuva kwalokho okwaziwa ngokuthi The Fire of 1747, yonke ingaphakathi le-Old State House yasha. Lokhu kwashiya kuphela isakhiwo sesisekelo kanye nezindonga zezitini ezakha isakhiwo namuhla.

Ukuze avuselele i-Old State House e-Boston, uThomas Joy wenza kabusha ngokuphelele lesi sakhiwo esingokomlando ngonyaka ka-1748. etholwe namuhla.

Izinguquko ezinkulu ezenziwa eNdlu Yesifunda Esidala zenziwe ngo-1830 ngumdwebi wezakhiwo u-Isaiah Rogers. Okunye ukubuyisela kwenziwa nguGeorge Albert Clough ngo-1881 - 1882 kwase kuthi okunye kwenziwa ngo-1991 nguGoody, Clancy & Associates. Ngemuva kuka-1991, akukho okunye ukubuyiselwa okudingekayo ukuze kugcinwe i-Old State House yaseBoston isesimweni esihlanzekile njengesakhiwo somlando.

Yayisetshenziselwa ini i-Old State House?

I-Old State House

I-Old State House yenze imisebenzi eyahlukene eminyakeni edlule, kusukela ezindlini zamasosha, isikhungo sezohwebo, isikhungo se izindaba, ngisho nomnyuziyamu womlando. Ngezansi sichaza ukusetshenziswa kwe-Old State House kuwo wonke umlando wayo.

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1657 - 1711: Ukusetshenziswa kwangaphambilini kwendlu ye-Old State, ene-First Town-House endaweni yayo.

Ngaphambi kokuthi kwakhiwe i-Old State House, ukusetshenziswa kokuqala kwe-Town-House eyakhiwa endaweni yayo kwakuwukuhlalisa uhulumeni wasekhaya wase-Boston. Isebenze njengeHholo Ledolobha ngesikhathi sokubusa kwamakholoni nababusi abadumile abanjengo-Endecott, uLeverett, uBradstreet kanye neBellingham esebenza njengenhliziyo yezepolitiki neyomphakathi yedolobha.

Imihlangano yesishayamthetho, amadili ababusi ezakhamuzi eziqavile, nemihlangano yezikhulu zikahulumeni wendawo yabanjelwa kule First Town-House. Ukwengeza, lesi sakhiwo ngaphambi kwe-Old State House sasekela imakethe yendawo ekhuthaze ukukhula komnotho waseBoston, esiza indawo kanye nabantu ababalulekile ukuthuthukisa umnotho indawo

1711 - 1713: Ukwakhiwa kweNdlu Yesifunda Esidala

Ngo-1711 kwaba nomlilo owacekela phansi sonke isakhiwo se-First Town-House eyayakhiwe ngamapulangwe. Ngemva kwalokhu, kwadingeka kwakhiwe isakhiwo sendawo esisha esasizosebenza njengendlunkulu kahulumeni wendawo. Ngakho kwahlelwa ukwakhiwa kwendawo manje eyaziwa ngokuthi i-Boston's Old State House.

Phakathi neminyaka ka-1711 kuya ku-1713, uRobert Twelves waklama, wasihlela futhi wasifeza lesi sakhiwo. Ku inqubo wokwakha, akukho msebenzi wezombangazwe noma wezohwebo owenziwa endaweni yesakhiwo.

1713 - 1768 kuya ku-1770 (cishe): I-Old State House njengesikhungo sikahulumeni ngezikhathi zamakholoni

Ngemva kokuba i-First Town-House yashiswa futhi lokho manje eyaziwa ngokuthi i-Old State House yakhiwe, lesi sakhiwo saba isihlalo esikhulu sikahulumeni wendawo eBoston. Ingaphakathi lesakhiwo esingokomlando laliyindawo ephakeme kunazo zonke edolobheni, libonakala cishe noma kuphi phakathi kwedolobha, lisebenza njengombukiso wamandla amaNgisi eNyakatho Melika.

Ingaphakathi le-Old State House laliqukethe ngo-1713 igumbi loMkhandlu kanye neHholo Elikhulu lapho imihlangano yenkantolo yeNkantolo Ephakeme Yokwahlulela yayibanjelwe khona. Ngaphandle kwengaphakathi leNdlu Yesifunda Esidala, lesi sakhiwo bekungesokuqala ukuba nama-balcony abheke umphakathi, okuphawula leli phuzu emlandweni lapho kufakwa indawo yokuthi iNdlu Yesishayamthetho YamaNgisi ikhulume nabantu.

Ngaphezu kokusebenza njengesizinda esiyinhloko sikahulumeni wendawo, lesi sakhiwo sasiphinde sibe isikhungo sezentengiselwano zendawo. Isitezi sokuqala se-Old State House sasebenza njengesikhungo sezohwebo esasibaluleke kakhulu ekuhwebeni kwezohwebo olwandle eBoston ngezikhathi zamakholoni.

Isitezi esingaphansi kwe-Old State House sasisebenza njengendawo yokugcina izinto. Kulesi sikhala, izakhamuzi ezibalulekile, osopolitiki baseBoston ngisho nabathengisi bebengakwazi ukuqasha izindawo zokugcina izinhlobo ezahlukene zemikhiqizo noma izinto, ikakhulukazi ngokugxila kwezohwebo.

 1768 kuya ku-1770 (cishe) - 1772: Ukusetshenziswa kwendlu ye-Old State njenge-Barracks

Phakathi kweminyaka ka-1768 kuya ku-1770, kunesikhathi lapho iNdlu Yesifunda Esidala yayisetshenziswa njengenqaba kahulumeni wamakoloni, phakathi nalesi sikhathi uhulumeni wayeba nemihlangano yawo eCambridge. Ngalesi sikhathi, indlu yamakholoni yalimala kakhulu, kwadingeka umnikelo wokwakha ngo-1772 nguThomas Dawes.

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Ngonyaka ka-1770 lokho okubizwa ngokuthi i-Boston Massacre nakho kwavela ngo-March 5 walowo nyaka. Ngosuku Lwesibhicongo SaseBoston, izakhamuzi zacelwa ukuba zibuyele ekhaya zivela kuvulandi we-Old State House. Umyalo wawuwukuthi kuqedwe udweshu. Kodwa-ke, lokhu kwagcina kuwuguquko olungavimbeki olubheke enkululekweni yase-United States.

1772 - 1776: Sebenzisa ngesikhathi soguquko ukuze uthole ukuzimela

Iminyaka embalwa phakathi kuka-1772 kuya ku-1776, i-Old State House yaqhubeka isetshenziswa uhulumeni wendawo wamaNgisi njengenjwayelo. Lokhu kusho ukuthi yayisetshenziselwa izinhloso zezombangazwe, ezohwebo nezokugcina, ekubeni umthombo womnyakazo wezomnotho edolobheni.

1776 - 1798: Isihlalo sikaHulumeni Wesifunda SaseMassachusetts

Ngo-1776, ohlangothini olusempumalanga ye-Old State House, kwenziwa isimemezelo esasizoshintsha inkambo ye-United States unomphela, iSimemezelo Sokuzimela. Lesi sitatimende sinikezwe uThomas Crafts, omunye wamadodana eNkululeko.

Selokhu kwamenyezelwa inkululeko, iNdlu Yesifunda Esidala yasebenza njengesihlalo sikaHulumeni Wesifunda SaseMassachusetts. Ngalo lolo suku izimpawu zeBhubesi kanye ne-Unicorn ezazimele amandla kahulumeni wamaNgisi phezu kwamaMelika zasuswa.

Ngemva kweminyaka engaphezu kwengu-20 isetshenziswa njengekomkhulu likahulumeni wendawo, ngo-1798 uhulumeni wathuthela eBeacon Streen, lapho ayenesihlalo sakhe esisha sikahulumeni. Kusukela kulo nyaka, lesi sakhiwo saqala ukuthola igama le-Old State House esaligcina kuze kube yilolu suku.

1830 - 1841: Ihholo Ledolobha leDolobha laseBoston

Ngo-1830 i-Old State House yaseBoston yaphinde yasetshenziswa, yasebenza njengeHholo Ledolobha ledolobha. Lokhu kwavumela uhulumeni wasekhaya ukuba asebenze njengekomkhulu lezokuphatha eliyinhloko edolobheni. Izakhamizi zaseBoston zingeza, zicele usizo, ziphathe amaphepha nokunye okuningi. Ngemuva kuka-1841, i-Boston's City Hall yasuswa, yaphuma e-Old State House.

1841 - 1881: Ukusetshenziswa kwezentengiselwano kwe-Old State House

Kusukela ngo-1841, lapho iHholo Ledolobha lithuthwa, indlu ye-Old State yayisetshenziselwa ukuhweba njengakudala. Lokhu kwavumela zonke izinhlobo zabathengisi bendawo nosomabhizinisi abakhulu ukuthi baqhube ibhizinisi kulesi sakhiwo esidala esinomlando, bakhuthaze ukuhweba kanye nomnotho wendawo.

1881 - 2021: Museum of Boston History

Kusukela ngo-1881, i-Old State House yathathwa yi-Bostonian Society, eyaqala ukusebenza isakhiwo esingokomlando njengendawo yokugcina iminyuziyamu. Kulo nyaka, ukubuyiselwa kwenziwa ukuze kugcinwe isimo sesakhiwo, sifuna ukusigcina siseduze njengokwakhiwa kwasekuqaleni futhi kwahlanganisa neBhubesi kanye ne-Unicorn eyayimelela amandla aseBrithani.

Ingxenye yesakhiwo esingaphansi kwesakhiwo esingokomlando yathathwa yisiteshi sesitimela sendawo kusukela ngo-1904. Nokho, izitezi eziphansi zazigcinwa njengemnyuziyamu yomlando. Isiqongo se-Old State House sahlala sisesimweni saso sokuqala ngesikhathi lesi sakhiwo sithengwa yi-Bostonian Society.

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I-Boston Marine Museum yathatha ingxenye yesakhiwo njengemalimboleko kusukela ngo-1909 - 1947. Ngemva kwalo nyaka, indlu ye-Old State iyaqhubeka nokugcinwa njengemyuziyamu kuze kube yilolu suku. Ngomehluko kuphela ukuthi iqhutshwa yinhlangano yeRevolutionary Spaces.

Kwenzekani e-Old State House?

I-Old State House

I-Old State House yindawo ebone izinguquko ezibalulekile zomlando emlandweni wokuzimela kwe-United States of America. Esokuqala salezi zenzakalo ezibalulekile senzeka ngoMashi 5, 1770, unyaka okwenzeka ngawo isibhicongo saseBoston.

Isibhicongo saseBoston kwaba ukungqubuzana lapho amasosha amaningana ayehlukunyezwa isixuku esasithukuthele agcina ngokudubula azibulale. Kwaqala lapho abafana abambalwa bendawo behlukumeza isosha laseBrithani ebusuku. Isimo sashuba ngokushesha lapho isosha laseBrithani libulala enye yezingane.

Isimo sokubulawa komfana waseBoston senza ukuthi izisebenzi, amatilosi nazo zonke izinhlobo zezakhamuzi ezisezingeni eliphansi zihlanganyele ekubhikisheleni uhulumeni wamaNgisi. Lesi sigameko senza amasosha ayisikhombisa aseBrithani afune ukusindisa isosha elibulale ingane. Phakathi naleso sikhathi futhi ezivikela esixukwini esasithukuthele, amasosha amaningana adubula futhi ahlasela isixuku.

Igazi elachitheka emgwaqeni phambi kwe-Old State House e-Boston kwaba uphethiloli owaqala inguquko yaseMelika efuna inkululeko yayo. ULieutenant Governor Thomas Hutchinson uzame ukudambisa isimo sosuku, wayala isixuku ukuthi sigoduke. Kodwa-ke, imizamo yakhe yaba yize futhi yonke into yayilungiselelwe impumelelo kaJulayi 4, 1776.

18 de julio de 1776

NgoJulayi 18, 1776, i-Old State House yaphinde yabona esinye isikhathi esingokomlando, esibangelwa izenzakalo ezaqala ngo-March 5, 1770. Ngalolo suku ngo-1776, ohlangothini olusempumalanga ye-Old State House, uThomas Crafts wakhipha iSimemezelo. ye-Independence kubantu baseBoston, eyavela ngenxa yezehlakalo zangoJulayi 4, 1776.

Ngo-01:00 ntambama ngoJulayi 18, 1776, uCrafts wafunda isimemezelo phambi kwawo wonke amalungu akhona eGumbini LoMkhandlu. Ngemva kokuyifunda kubo, uSherifu uWilliam Greenleaf wazama ukuyifunda emphakathini. Kodwa-ke, ehluleka ukuveza izwi lakhe, uCrafts wanquma ukuyifunda ngokwakhe phambi kwabo bonke abantu baseBostonian.

Ngalolo suku kwasuswa izithombe zeNgonyama kanye ne-Unicorn ezazimi phambi kwendlu yoMbuso Omdala. Lezi zithombe zazimelela amandla eBrithani phezu kwamakoloni angu-13 aseNyakatho Melika, eyaba yi-United States of America. Izithombe ezithi zashiswa ngomlilo ku-King Street ngalolo suku. Ngakho limelela ukuphela kwamandla eBrithani phezu kwe-United States.

Curiosities

I-Old State House

I-Old State House namuhla iyindawo ebaluleke kakhulu yezivakashi. Kuyindawo ekahle yokufunda okwengeziwe ngokuzimela kwe-United States. Uma ungathanda ukwazi okwengeziwe ngemnyuziyamu kanye nesakhiwo somlando sisonke, nazi ezinye izinto ezithokozisayo mayelana nendawo.

  • Ngo-1835, umshisekeli wokuqothula uWilliam Lloyd kwadingeka abaleke esixukwini esasithukuthele, ngakho wabalekela e-Old State House eBoston. Ngenxa yalesi sehlakalo, uLloyd wabekwa icala lokususa uthuthuva endaweni.
  • Njengamanje kunezifaniso ezinhlanu ze-Old State House. Ezine zazo zitholakala kulo lonke elaseMassachusetts kanye neyodwa eVirginia.
  • Ngeminyaka eyi-bicentennial yenkululeko ye-United States, iNdlovukazi u-Elizabeth II yavakashela i-Old State House. Ukwengeza, iNdlovukazi yakhuluma nezilaleli eziningi kuvulandi ofanayo. Ukuzimela kwe-United States kwamenyezelwa kubantu baseBoston
  • I-Old State House iyingxenye ye-Freedom Trail. Ukuvakasha kwezindawo zomlando ezibaluleke kakhulu zenkululeko yaseMelika.


Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kuhambisana nemigomo yethu yezimiso zokuziphatha zokuhlela. Okwamanje sisebenzela ukulungisa nokuthuthukisa okuqukethwe kwethu ngezinye izilimi.

Uma ungumhumushi ogunyaziwe ungasibhalela nokusebenza nathi. (isiJalimane, iSpanishi, isiFulentshi)

Ukuze ubike iphutha lokuhumusha noma ukuthuthukiswa, chofoza lapha.

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