Imodi Yokukhiqiza Yezenhlalo: Izici nokuningi

Ngokwencazelo ye-socialism yomlando wezezimali womphakathi, indlela yokukhiqiza ye-socialist imelela inyunyana yabasebenzi, isakhiwo sezombusazwe kanye nezezimali. Le ndlela yokukhiqiza itholakala phakathi kwe-capitalism kanye ne-communism. Qhubeka ufunde lesi sihloko ukuze ufunde kabanzi mayelana nalokhu indlela yokukhiqiza ye-socialist.

Incazelo Yendlela Yokukhiqiza Ye-Socialist

Indlela yokukhiqiza ye-socialist, eyaziwa nangokuthi isigaba esiphansi se-Marxism noma nje i-socialism njengo-Marx kanye no-Engels basebenzisa amagama ama-Marxism kanye ne-socialism ngokushintshana, isikhathi esiqondile sokuthuthukiswa kwezimali kanye neqoqo elihambisanayo lokusebenzelana kwezinyunyana zabasebenzi okuvela ku-capitalism ezweni uhlaka lwemfundiso enokwethenjelwa ngaphakathi kwemfundiso kaMarxist.

Incazelo ye-Marxist ye-socialism yileyo yenguquko yezomnotho. Kulolu shintsho, okuwukuphela kombandela wokukhiqiza izindleko zesintu (okungukuthi, ukwaneliseka okuqondile kwezidingo zomuntu noma izimfuno zezimali), ngakho-ke umthetho wenani awusaqondisi umsebenzi wezomnotho. Ukukhiqizwa kwe-Marxist okuzosetshenziswa kuhlanganiswa ukuhlela komnotho okuqaphelayo. Ukusatshalaliswa kwemikhiqizo kusekelwe esimisweni esithi “kulowo nalowo ngokomnikelo wakhe”.

Ubudlelwano obujwayelekile be-socialism bubonakala ngokuthi i-proletariat ilawula ngempumelelo izindlela zokufezekiswa, kungaba ngezinkampani, izinhlangano noma ngobunikazi bomphakathi noma amathuluzi angasese kanye nokuzilawula. I Inzuzo enkulu ihloselwe isigaba esikhuthele ngakho-ke nomphakathi wonkana.

El socialismo se desarrolla ahora sobre la base de la umkhakha pesada automática y ezolimo colectiva industrializada. La sociedad misma, los trabajadores tienen la posibilidad de planificar y regular inqubo de producción a nivel económico nacional. Bajo el capitalismo, una organización más o menos planeada de la producción sólo es posible dentro de una empresa o monopolio. Pero incluso esta planificación es negada por la anarquía que reina a lo largo de la umnotho.

I-Socialism ihlanganisa ithuba lokuqondisa okuhleliwe kwendlela yokukhiqiza okuzuzisayo ngokuphelele. Ububanzi bokucaciswa komphakathi, ukwakheka kwayo, ukuhlukaniswa kwezabasebenzi kanye nomengameli bokukhiqiza phakathi kwamagatsha omnotho, amanani, amaholo: konke lokhu akusazenzeki. Umphakathi ngokwawo uhlela ukunxephezela ngokwengeziwe izidingo zabahlali bawo.

I-Socialist Mode of Production Definition

Nokho, lokhu akusho ukuthi imithetho yemigomo yezomnotho iyeke ukusebenza. Ngokuphambene nalokho, ukuze umsebenzi oqaphelayo obheke emnothweni uphumelele kakhudlwana, umphakathi wezenhlalakahle kufanele uqondiswe yimithetho yenhloso yentuthuko yawo futhi uhlele umnotho wawo ngokuhambisana nale mithetho.

UMarx wayenombono wokuthi imodi kanye nezici eziyinhloko zenqubo yokukhiqiza zakha yonke imisebenzi kanye nezindlela zokukhiqiza ezakha isisekelo sayo yonke inhlalakahle yomphakathi. Ngaphansi kwe-socialism lezi zingxenye ziyahlangana ukuze abakhiqizi babe ngabanikazi bezinsimbi zokusebenza abazisebenzisayo. Lokhu akufaki nhlobo ukuguqulwa kwezindlela zokukhiqiza zibe izindlela zokuxhashazwa kwengxenye yomphakathi.

Njengabanikazi abambisene bezinto zomphakathi kanye nabahlanganyeli ohlelweni lokukhiqizwa komphakathi, wonke amadoda ayalingana futhi asungula ubudlelwano babo ngesisekelo sokubambisana nosizo. Impahla yomphakathi ikhona ngezindlela ezimbili: ukuba ngabantu (uhulumeni) kanye nokubambisana.

Impahla yabantu jikelele ikusocialism ephethwe nguhulumeni njengoba umphakathi umelwe wumbuso kulesi sigaba. Uma kuthiwa ngaphansi kweSocialism, amadoda aqondisa intuthuko yawo emphakathini, kusho ukuthi lokhu kwenziwa yiQembu kanye noMbuso asebenzisa imisebenzi yabaholi nabagqugquzeli bomnotho wezenhlalakahle.

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Luyini uhlelo lokukhiqiza?

Noma iyiphi indlela inkampani eyisebenzisayo ukuguqula izinsiza noma izinto ezingavuthiwe zibe yizimpahla ezithengiswayo iwuhlelo lokukhiqiza. Izindlela zikasonkontileka ukwakha indlu yokuhlala, isitudiyo somsebenzi ukuze enze umsebenzi wobuciko, kanye nomugqa wokuhlanganisa ukuze kukhiqizwe izinkulungwane zemikhiqizo eshibhile konke kuyizinhlelo zokukhiqiza. Izinkampani zingagcina inzuzo iphezulu futhi izindleko ziphansi ngokugcina izinhlelo zazo zokukhiqiza zisebenza kahle ngangokunokwenzeka.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tS3GUf2iAwQ

Izici

Ezinye izici ze-socialism yilezi:

  • Ubunikazi bomphakathi: Lesi yisimiso esiyisisekelo se-socialism. Emnothweni wezenhlalakahle, izindlela zokukhiqiza nokumaketha ziphethwe, zilawulwa futhi zilawulwa umphakathi, kungaba nguhulumeni noma ngezinhlangano. Isisusa esiyisisekelo akukona ukusebenzisa izindlela zokufeza inzuzo, kodwa kunalokho ngenxa yesithakazelo senhlalakahle yomphakathi.
  • Ukuhlela umnotho: Ngokungafani nomnotho wonxiwankulu, umnotho wezenhlalakahle awulawulwa yimithetho yokuhlinzeka nokufunwa. Esikhundleni salokho, yonke imisebenzi yezezimali (ukukhiqiza, ukumaketha, ukuphindisela, kanye nentela) ihlelwa futhi ihlelwe yiziphathimandla zokuhlela ezimaphakathi, ngokuvamile uhulumeni. Umnotho we-socialist uncike kuziphathimandla zokuhlela ezimaphakathi ukuze kusatshalaliswe ingcebo, kunokuthembela emandleni ezimakethe.
  • Umphakathi olinganayo: I-Socialism yavela njengokuphikisana nokuphambana kwezezimali okwalethwa ubunxiwankulu bokuqala. Ngakho-ke, ikhomba umphakathi olinganayo lapho kungekho zigaba. Ngokufanelekile, bonke abantu ngaphakathi komnotho wezenhlalakahle kufanele babe nokulingana kwezomnotho.
  • Ukunikezwa kwezimfuneko eziyisisekelo: Emnothweni wezenhlalakahle, izidingo eziyisisekelo (ukudla, indawo yokuhlala, izingubo, imfundo, impilo kanye nomsebenzi) zihlinzekwa nguhulumeni ngaphandle kokubandlulula. Lokhu kungenye yezinzuzo ezinkulu kakhulu ze-socialism. Nokho, ukuhlinzekwa kwalezi zimfuneko nguhulumeni kungenza uquqaba lucabange ukuthi ngeke luphile ngaphandle kukahulumeni, okwakha indawo ekahle yokuphakama kohulumeni abanegunya.
  • Awukho umncintiswano: Imvamisa, uma ufuna ukuthenga imoto, unezinhlelo eziningi ongakhetha kuzo. Kukhona amabhrendi ahlukahlukene namamodeli ahlukahlukene anemininingwane ehlukene namanani. Kukumsebenzisi ngamunye ukukhetha leyo evumelana kangcono nezidingo zabo. Okufanayo kusebenza nakweminye imikhiqizo eminingi. Emnothweni wezenhlalakahle, akukho mncintiswano ezimakethe njengoba uMbuso kuwukuphela komqashi. Umbuso ugxile kuphela ekuhlinzekweni kwezidingo, okuholela ekukhetheni okulinganiselwe komthengi.

Imodi Yezenhlalo Yezici Zokukhiqiza

  • Kulawulwa ukumaketha: Abantu bangase bazibuze ukuthi amanani alawulwa kanjani emnothweni ngaphandle kokuncintisana kwezimakethe. Ezomnotho zezenhlalakahle, amanani emikhiqizo alawulwa futhi alawulwa umbuso. Amazwe asetha kokubili intengo yemakethe yezimpahla zomthengi kanye nenani lokubala elisiza abaphathi ukuthi benze izinqumo mayelana nokukhiqizwa kwezimpahla.
  • Ezezenhlalakahle: Esinye isizathu esibalulekile esabangela ukwanda kwe-socialism kwakuwukuvikela isigaba esikhuthele ekuxhashazweni. Ngaphansi kwezinhlelo zesocialist, akukho ukuxhashazwa. Umbuso unakekela isigaba sabasebenzi ngokuvikela umsebenzi, iholo elincane kanye namalungelo okuqashelwa kwezinyunyana.
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Izinzuzo

Indlela yokukhiqiza ye-socialist inezinzuzo eziningi ezayenza yaba uhlelo lwezezimali olukhangayo ngesikhathi ubunxiwankulu bukhungethwe ukungabi nabulungiswa nokuxhashazwa. Ezinye zalezi zinzuzo zihlanganisa:

  • Ubulungiswa bezenhlalakahle: Lokhu mhlawumbe inzuzo enkulu yale modeli. I-Socialism ikhuthaza ukucindezelwa kokuphambana kwezezimali kanye nokwabiwa okulinganayo nokwabiwa kwemali engenayo yezwe. Ngaphansi kwe-socialism, wonke umuntu uthola ingxenye yakhe efanelekile yengcebo yezwe. Bonke abantu banamathuba afanayo futhi ukuxhashazwa kuyaqedwa.
  • Ukukhiqiza ngokusekelwe ezidingweni: Okunye okubi kakhulu konxiwankulu ukuthi ukukhiqiza kuncike emandleni okuthenga ezikhulu ezincane. Uhambo olucebe kakhulu e-Lamborghinis nokuhamba ngezindiza ezizimele kuyilapho abampofu bengakwazi ukuthenga ukudla. Imodi yokukhiqiza eshiwo ivimbela izimo ezinjalo. Eminothweni yezenhlalakahle, ukukhiqiza kuqondiswe ekuqinisekiseni ukuthi izidingo eziyisisekelo zoquqaba kuhlangatshezwana nazo kuqala.
  • Ukusatshalaliswa ngokulinganayo kwengcebo nemali engenayo: Izomnotho ezisekelwe kumodi yokukhiqiza yezenhlalakahle zinikezelwe ekunikezeni amathuba alinganayo kubo bonke. Akukho ukuxhashazwa. Ingcebo ihlukaniselwa abasebenzi ngokubheka igalelo labo emnothweni. Lokhu kugwema izimo lapho amalungu ambalwa omphakathi ethatha ithuba lemizamo yabasebenzi ukuze bakhe futhi baziqongelelele ingcebo.

  • Ukuthuthukiswa kwezezimali okusheshayo: Emnothweni osuselwe kundlela yokukhiqiza ye-socialist, kukhona isiphathimandla esimaphakathi esiphethe ukuveza ukusetshenziswa kwezinsiza kanye nokwenza izinqumo ezisheshayo. Izinsiza zisetshenziswa ngokugcwele futhi ukumoshwa kuncane. Lokhu kuholela ekukhuleni okusheshayo kwezezimali zezifunda zeSocialist.
  • Ukuthuthukiswa komnotho okulinganiselwe: Ngokuqagela kwezomnotho okubalulekile ku-socialism, intuthuko ingenziwa ngendlela elinganayo esizweni sonke. Esikhundleni sokugxila ekuthuthukisweni ezindaweni ezithile, ukuqagela kwezimali kuqinisekisa ukuthi zonke izifunda ziyathuthukiswa, kuhlanganisa nezindawo ezisemuva. Ngokunjalo le nhlangano iqinisekisa ukuthi zonke izinhlaka zomnotho ziyathuthuka zibambene.
  • Ukuzinza kwezomnotho: Indlela yokukhiqiza ye-socialist nayo inciphisa ubungozi bokuntengantenga komnotho. Ngaphansi konxiwankulu, ezomnotho zivame ukuba nokuguquguquka, okungaholela ekumoshweni kwezinsiza kanye namazinga aphezulu okuntuleka kwemisebenzi. Lokhu akunakwenzeka kakhulu emnothweni wezenhlalakahle. Njengoba umnotho uhlelwe kahle futhi ngenxa yokuthi akukho ukutshalwa kwezimali kwangasese, ukushintshashintsha izimfundiso zezomnotho ayivelakancane kwezomnotho wezenhlalakahle.
  • Ukongiwa kwemvelo: Uno de los mayores problemas de las economías capitalistas es que existe un gran desprecio por los imithombo yemvelo. Las empresas privadas se preocupan más por las ganancias que por el futuro del mundo. El imodeli yenkampani yokukhiqiza umphakathi, ngakolunye uhlangothi, awuqhutshwa yinzuzo. Njengoba umnotho ulawulwa yiziphathimandla eziyinhloko, lesi siphathimandla singahlela kusenesikhathi futhi sibeke izinyathelo zokuqinisekisa ukuthi imithombo yemvelo yezwe iyongiwa futhi isetshenziswa ngendlela efanele.
  • Ukuxhashazwa okuncane kanye nemizabalazo yezigaba: Enye yezinhloso eziyinhloko zendlela yokukhiqiza ye-socialist ukwakha umphakathi ongenazigaba lapho wonke amalungu elingana. Asikho isigaba sezigwili esingaxhaphaza abampofu. Alukho ubandlululo futhi alukho ukwenzelela olunikezwa amalungu athile omphakathi ngoba wonke ayalingana. Lokhu akubandakanyi imizabalazo yezigaba eyingxenye ebalulekile yeminotho yonxiwankulu.
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  • Ezezenhlalakahle: Enye inzuzo yendlela yokukhiqiza ye-socialist ukuthi ilinganisa izidingo zawo wonke amalungu omphakathi. Zonke lezi zidingo ezibalulekile zomuntu zinakekelwa nguhulumeni. Cabanga ngesimo lapho umbuso ukuhlinzeka ngokudla, indlu, izingubo zokugqoka, ukunakekelwa kwempilo, imfundo, nomsebenzi. Uma umuntu ebandakanyeka engozini ngesikhathi esemsebenzini, umbuso uyakhathazeka futhi unakekele umndeni wakhe ngenkathi elulama.

Emnothweni onjalo, abantu bangangena emsebenzini ngaphandle kokukhathazeka kakhulu ngekusasa, okuholela ekusebenzeni okuphezulu. Lokhu kuvame ukufaniswa nemiphakathi yonxiwankulu lapho umuntu engase aqashwe kodwa angaholi ngokwanele ukuthi angakwazi ukulala ekhaya ebusuku noma akhokhele usizo lwezempilo lapho egula.

nebubi

Naphezu kwezinzuzo ekugcineni, indlela yokukhiqiza ye-socialist ayikona nje ubuqotho. I-Socialism nayo inezinselele zayo, ezinye zazo ezigcine ziholele ekuweni kweminye iminotho ebikade iwunxele. Okunye okungalungile kwendlela yokukhiqiza ye-socialist ihlanganisa:

  • Asikho isisekelo esanele sokubala izindleko: Emnothweni wonxiwankulu, izindleko zokukhiqiza kanye nentengo elandelayo yemikhiqizo ibekwa amandla ezimakethe. Ngakolunye uhlangothi, emnothweni walolu hlobo, amandla ezinkampani awekho engcupheni. Njengoba izindlela zokukhiqiza ziphethwe umbuso, ophinde usebenze njengomnikazi oyedwa, izinhlangano ezicubungulayo azinayo intengo yemakethe. Lokhu kudala isimo lapho singekho isisekelo esanele sokubala izindleko zokukhiqiza izimpahla namasevisi.
  • Ukuntuleka kokukhuthaza: Indlela yokukhiqiza ye-socialist imelela inhlalakahle yomphakathi ngaphezu kokuhlomula komuntu siqu noma ukuzizuzisa yena. Njengoba i-socialism imelene nokuziqongelelela ingcebo, kufinyelela eqophelweni lapho umzamo owengeziwe ohlangothini lwakho uholela ekutheni ungazuzi muntu. Ngaphandle kwesisusa senzuzo, abasebenzi abanaso isisusa sokusebenza kanzima nokusungula izinto ezintsha. Ekugcineni, lokhu kuholela ekukhiqizeni okuphansi futhi kunciphisa izinga lokuthuthuka kwezinhlobonhlobo Izinhlobo zezomnotho.

  • Ukuntuleka kwenkululeko yezomnotho: Ngobunikazi bomphakathi, i-socialism iphuca abantu inkululeko yebhizinisi, okubuye kubephuca ukukhetha kwabo okukhululekile komsebenzi. Ngokungafani nezomnotho wonxiwankulu, lapho ukhululekile ukukhetha umsebenzi, isiphathimandla esihlelayo sabela abasebenzi abasemnothweni wezenhlalakahle. Abasebenzi abakwazi ukushintsha imisebenzi ngaphandle kwemvume yesiphathimandla esihlelayo.
  • Ukuntuleka kwenkululeko yomthengi: Umnotho wobunxiwankulu unikeza abathengi ukukhetha. Ingabe ukhona ongayithandi i-Coca-Cola? Khona-ke ungakwazi ukuphuza i-Pepsi. Ingabe umuntu unomuzwa wokuthi iFerrari ibiza kakhulu? Lokhu kungathenga iMercedes noma iFiat. Ngokuyisisekelo, unenkululeko yokuzikhethela. Emnothweni wezenhlalakahle, awunayo leyo nketho. Isiphathimandla esihlelayo sinquma imikhiqizo ezokhiqizwa, kanye nezintengo zale mikhiqizo. Uma othile engawuthandi umkhiqizo noma intengo yawo, akukho okuningi ongakwenza. Kuyisimo "sokuthatha noma usishiye".


Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kuhambisana nemigomo yethu yezimiso zokuziphatha zokuhlela. Okwamanje sisebenzela ukulungisa nokuthuthukisa okuqukethwe kwethu ngezinye izilimi.

Uma ungumhumushi ogunyaziwe ungasibhalela nokusebenza nathi. (isiJalimane, iSpanishi, isiFulentshi)

Ukuze ubike iphutha lokuhumusha noma ukuthuthukiswa, chofoza lapha.

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