I-Pelton turbine

Ezinsukwini zamanje, akunakwenzeka ukucabanga ngempilo engenawo ugesi futhi yingakho ziningi izindlela zokuthola amandla kagesi, futhi omunye wabo kufanele sibonge izitshalo zamandla kagesi.

Ngaphakathi izitshalo zamandla kagesi, kwenzeka inqubo ehlanganisaukuguqulwa kwamandla amanzi abe amandla kagesi Futhi kungenzeka kanjani? Lokhu kungenxa yabanamandla imishini yokuphehla ugesi ezitholakala kuzo, okukodwa okubaluleke kakhulu yi Pelton turbines.

Umlando we-Pelton turbine

Ukuze wazi umlando wale turbine, okokuqala kufanele siqonde maphakathi nawo-1800, lapho umsunguli waseMelika, okuthiwa Lester Allan Pelton. Wakwazi ukuthola ngesikhathi somsebenzi wakhe ezimayini zegolide indlela entsha yokukhiqiza amandla emayini.

No obstante, la clave del descubrimiento de Pelton, fue cambiar dónde impactaba el chorro de agua en los alabes. Hasta ese momento, lo hacían en su centro, pero Pelton, se dio cuenta que si el agua impactaba en los bordes de los álabes, estos provocarían que el flujo del agua regresara de forma inversa, en consecuencia, produciendo una mayor velocidad.

Iyini i-turbine ye-Pelton

Ama-turbine e-Pelton awuhlobo lwe-tangential action turbine. Ngakho-ke, zisetshenziswa endaweni izitshalo zamandla kagesi, lapho impophoma iphakeme kakhulu, kodwa inokugeleza okuncane.

Le turbine ihlukaniswa kwezinye, kanjani Kaplan y Francis, ngoba yenziwe ngabasabalalisi bamanzi abambalwa abazungeza umgijimi we-turbine. Lawa majethi amanzi ashaya ama-blades noma ama-vane anamathele ku-impeller, esunduza amanzi futhi enze i-impeller ngokwayo ijikeleze. Lokhu kunyakaza kudlula ku-shaft ukuze ekugcineni kufinyelele i-generator.

Kungase kukuthande:  Izishintshi zokushisa

Izici ze-Pelton turbine

ngoba uyazi okuyi- turbina Peltonke sekuyisikhathi sokukhuluma nge izici zobuchwepheshe ze-turbine, okuyizona ezihamba phambili kuzo zonke izinhlobo zama-turbine e-Pelton.

  • Ku ama-turbines wesenzo ijethi lamanzi lisebenza ku-rotor ye-turbine.
  • Futhi angama-tangential turbines, lokhu kusho ukuthi amanzi ashaya i-impeller kuwo wonke ama-periphery awo.
  • Ngokujwayelekile ine-eksisi evundlile noma eqondile (I-eksisi iyisici esidlulisela amandla e-kinetic we-rotor ku-generator).
  • Ukusetshenziswa kwayo kwenzeka ikakhulukazi ezimpophomeni eziphakeme kakhulu. Cishe amamitha angama-200 noma ngaphezulu.
  • Ngaphezu kwalokho, zisetshenziselwa ukugeleza kwamanzi amancane, ngokuvamile kuze kufike kuma-cubic metres angu-10 ngomzuzwana.
  • Ukujikeleza kwe-turbine kukhiqizwa ngamandla omfutho wejethi lamanzi.

Ekugcineni, sizokushiyela itafula elincane lapho sibonisa khona amanani obuchwepheshe asetshenziswa ekufakweni kwe-hydraulic ezosebenzisa i-turbine yesitayela se-Pelton.

Amanani e-Pelton Turbine

PEKusho amandla kumatheminali ejeneretha
I-KWPI-Turbine Shaft Power
I-KWQUkugeleza kwe-turbine ku-m3/s
Hukugxuma inetha ngamamitha
ρKuwukuminyana kwamanzi nge-1000 kg/m3
ηI-Turbine Efficiency (I-Dimensionless)
ηTRUkusebenza kahle kokudlulisela (okungalingani)
ηGUkusebenza Kahle Kwejeneretha (OkungenaDimension)
ηGRUkusebenza kweqembu lesizukulwane (Dimensionless)
KKuyinto engaguquki, lapho u-K engu-1000 W/kW
GUkunciphisa amandla

Ukusebenza kwe-Pelton turbine

  • Amathiphu ama-blades azosika i-jet enamandla yamanzi, okuzobangela ukuhlukana phakathi kwamafilimu oketshezi, kanye nokulinganisa futhi okuvela ekugelezeni okufanayo.
  • Manje lawa majethi amanzi asebenza ngqo ku-rotor noma umgijimi, ozophusha ama-blades. Ngakho-ke, bafinyelela ukuguqulwa kwamandla we-hydraulic kumandla wemishini.
  • Ukuklanywa kwama-blades kuvumela amanzi ukuthi aqondiswe kwenye indawo, kodwa ngaphandle kwanoma yiluphi uhlobo lwamandla ngokusebenzisa emaphethelweni asemaceleni. Yini enganikeli nkinga kwamanye ama-blade asebenzayo.
  • Ngakho-ke, i-jet yamanzi idlulisela amandla e-kinetic ku-impeller, futhi ngenxa yalokho, iguqulwa ngokushesha ibe amandla omshini.
  • Manje, inaliti ye-turbine, eqashwe isilawuli sesivinini, inquma ukuthi ivale kakhulu noma incane i-nozzle orifice, okubangela ushintsho ekugelezeni kwamanzi. Ngokuqinisekile, le ngxenye ibaluleke kakhulu, ngoba igcina isivinini esiqhubekayo ku-impeller, inciphisa ingozi yokubaleka nokwehla ekuguqukeni.
Kungase kukuthande:  I-Kaplan turbine

Lena yindlela iningi le-Pelton turbines esebenza ngayo, sisho iningi, njengoba imodeli ngayinye ingaveza ezinye ukwehluka ekusebenzeni kwayo, sin embargo, se mantiene inqubo general antes mencionado. Además, puede variar según el número de inyectores que posea la turbina Pelton.

Izingxenye ze-Pelton turbine

Ukuze uthole ukumazi mathupha I-Pelton hydraulic turbine, kufanele sifunde ukuthi ziyini izingxenye eziyiqambayo, ngakho-ke, sizobuyekeza ngayinye yazo ngokuningiliziwe.

asihambe kuqala ukusho izakhi ezakha i-Pelton turbine, okulandelayo:

  1. Umsabalalisi
  2. Ukujikeleza
  3. ICarcasa
  4. igumbi lokuphumula
  5. Uhlelo lokuphumula
  6. I-Turbine Shaft

 Umsabalalisi we-Pelton Turbine

El umsabalalisi Yinhliziyo ye-Pelton turbine, futhi yakhiwe yingxenye yesisetshenziswa esisodwa noma ezahlukene ezihlinzeka ngamanzi ku-turbine. La maqembu afanayo anomsebenzi obalulekile ukushayela amajethi amanzi ngokulinganayo ku-rotor.

Futhi, ngaphakathi kwe-distributor, ukugeleza okuqondile kulawulwa, okumele ihambe ibheke ku-rotor. Ukuhlukanisa ngisho nokusika konke ukugeleza, okungadala umonakalo omkhulu kuyo yonke i-Pelton turbine.

Futhi kungani sibona ukuthi kunamaturbine anama-injection amaningi? Inombolo ye- ama-injection ye-Pelton turbine, kuzoncika ku amandla nokusebenza kwefayela le- i-generator. Njalo, kucatshangelwa izici ze-waterfall. Ngakho-ke, singathola:

  • I-Pelton Turbines enama-injection angu-2
  • I-Pelton Turbines enama-injection angu-8

 I-Rotor noma i-Impeller ye-Pelton Turbine

Ake sihambe manje nengxenye ye-angular ye-Pelton turbine. I-rotor noma i-impeller. Lona ucezu ophethe guqula wonke amandla asebenza ngamanzi avela emanzini emandleni emishini. Ngamagama alula, isebenzisa ukugeleza kwamanzi ukushayela izingxenye zemishini ye-turbine.

Ngaphakathi kwe-rotor, sinezinto ezimbili ezibalulekile, okuyilezi ezilandelayo:

  • Isondo Lokushayela: Ixhunywe ku-axis emaphakathi ye-turbine, futhi inesibopho sokusekela wonke ama-rotor blades.
  • izindwani: Ziwuhlobo lwezinkezo noma amafosholo, futhi umsebenzi wazo omkhulu uwukusunduza umfudlana wamanzi ophuma egumbini lokusabalalisa.
Kungase kukuthande:  Izishintshi zokushisa

Namuhla, kokubili isondo lokushayela kanye nama-blades, zixhunywe esiqeshini esifanayo, ngaphezu kwakho konke, ukulondoloza izindleko zokwakha, ukuze zisebenze kangcono futhi ukuze zikwazi ukumelana nemithelela yezindiza ezinamandla zamanzi.

 I-Pelton Turbine Casing

Ubungako bezinhlamvu, singayichaza njengengubo evikelayo enakekela ama-injection, i-rotor, nezinye izakhi zemishini ngaphakathi kwe-Pelton turbine. Ngaphezu kokuvimbela wonke amanzi adlula ezinhlamvini ukuthi angachaphazeli ngaphandle. Ngokuvamile kwenziwa ngensimbi yensimbi.

 igumbi lokuphumula

Uma wonke amanzi asetshenziselwe ukuhambisa i-rotor noma i-impeller, amanzi asele adinga ukushiya i-turbine, ngakho-ke, azokwenza kanjalo ngegumbi lokukhipha, elingeyona into engaphezu kwepayipi eholela amanzi ku-drain.

 Uhlelo lokuphumula

I-turbine ngayinye ye-Pelton idinga umjikelezo wamanzi evela egunjini lokusabalalisa. Ngakho-ke, uma amanzi adlula ama-blades enyusa isivinini sawo kangangokuthi angalimaza i-turbine, uhlelo lokubhuleka, isebenza ngokuphumelelayo ku-rotor, okokuqala, ngokuma kwayo ngokushesha.

 I-Pelton Turbine Shaft

I-eksisi, yingxenye exhunywe ku-rotor ye-turbine, edlulisela ukunyakaza kwe-kinetic komgijimi ku-generator. Lokhu kungabekwa mpo noma ngokuvundlile, kuye ngokuthi usebenza kuphi.

Izinzuzo zokungalungi kwe-pelton turbine

Injani Ukusebenza Kwe-Pelton Turbine?

Ngaphandle kokungabaza, Pelton turbines, zikhethwa yizimboni eziphehla ugesi ngamanzi en izimpophoma eziphakeme, njengoba, ngakolunye uhlangothi, inamanzi amancane. Ngokuvamile, ukusebenza kwakho okuhle kakhulu Isebenza ezinhlobonhlobo zokugeleza okubanzi, ngaphezulu noma ngaphansi ku-30% kuya ku-100% wokugeleza okuphezulu.

Lapha kulapho singabona khona ukusebenza okuphezulu kwe-Pelton turbine, ngakho-ke kuvame ukusetshenziswa ku izitshalo ezincane zamandla. Ngokwazi lokhu, singasungula ezinye izinzuzo kanye nokubi ekusebenzeni kwe-Pelton turbine, ake sibone ukuthi ziyini:

Izinzuzo ze-Pelton Turbine:

  • Aqinile futhi amelana.
  • Yehlisa inkinga yokuguguleka kwama-turbine blades.
  • Ngokuqinisekile, ukunakekela nokulungisa kulula.
  • Ukulawula ingcindezi nesivinini kulula kakhulu ukwenza.
  • Iveza ukusebenza okuhle kakhulu emithwalweni engaphelele.
  • Ukwakheka kwayo kulula futhi kushibhile kunamanye ama-hydraulic turbines.
  • Njengoba ijikeleza ngesivinini esikhulu, ingaxhunywa ngokuqondile ku-generator, egwema ukulahlekelwa ekuguqulweni kwamandla omshini.

Ukungalungi kwe-Pelton Turbine:

  • Isebenza kuphela ezindaweni ezincane.
  • Ingase idinge ama-injection amaningi ngokugeleza okukhulu.

Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kuhambisana nemigomo yethu yezimiso zokuziphatha zokuhlela. Okwamanje sisebenzela ukulungisa nokuthuthukisa okuqukethwe kwethu ngezinye izilimi.

Uma ungumhumushi ogunyaziwe ungasibhalela nokusebenza nathi. (isiJalimane, iSpanishi, isiFulentshi)

Ukuze ubike iphutha lokuhumusha noma ukuthuthukiswa, chofoza lapha.

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