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I-Boston Aquarium: I-New England Aquarium

I-New England Aquarium ibonakala ngokuhlala kwezinhlobonhlobo zezilwane zasemanzini, okuncike kakhulu olwandle, amachibi kanye nemifula ukuze kuphile. Uhlobo ngalunye luqukethwe embukisweni othile obekwe endaweni yawo.

Lapha ngeke nje ufunde ngezilwane zasolwandle, kodwa futhi ukulondolozwa nokugcinwa kwazo. Ngaphezu kwalokho, ukushintsha kwesimo sezulu kuye kwabangela ukuba izinhlobo eziningi zezilwane zibe sengozini futhi kuyadingeka ukufundisa izivakashi ngakho.

Umlando we-New England Aquarium

Ukuhlelwa kwe-aquarium kwethulwa ngonyaka we-1962, umklami oyinhloko okwakunguPeter Chermayeff (Cambridge Seven Associates). Ngonyaka ka-1969, lesi sakhiwo savulelwa umphakathi. I-Giant Ocean Tank yavulwa ngo-1970, njengoba yethulwa kuze kube manje ingomunye wemibukiso egqama kakhulu e-aquarium.

Ngo-1974, isikebhe esinezitezi eziningi esibizwa ngokuthi i-Discovery sasiboshwe eduze kwe-aquarium. Yayisebenza njengenkundla yezilwane ezincelisayo ezintantayo ze-aquarium, njengoba ukuntuleka komhlaba kwaba umkhawulo wokwandiswa kwe-aquarium.

El Ukutholakala kwahlala amahlengethwa namabhubesi olwandle kwaze kwaba yilapho ethuthwa maphakathi nawo-1990., lapho bediliza umkhumbi. I-Discovery yanqanyulwa maphakathi nawo-2000s ngenxa yokuphila isikhathi eside kanye nezindleko eziphakeme zokubuyisela.

Ngo-1998 inkampani yezokwakha iSchwartz kanye neSilver Architects yaqeda uphiko olusha lwasentshonalanga. Ingilazi nensimbi okuxhunywe kuyo kufaka phakathi isibonisi setheku esigcawini somphakathi, indawo yokudlela, indawo yokwamukela izivakashi, phakathi kokunye.

I-aquarium inethiyetha ye-IMAX enomthamo wezihlalo ezingama-428. Lesi sikhala savulwa ngo-2001 esakhiweni esihlukile esaklanywa u-E. Verner Johnson and Associates. Iprojektha ingabonisa amafilimu e-2D nawe-3D.

Ngo 2013, i-Giant Ocean Tank ithole ukubuyiselwa okukhulu, ngokwengezwa kwesithombe esifana nese-Caribbean reef.

Indawo ye-New England Aquarium

I-New England Aquarium itholakala e-Boston Harbor, ikakhulukazi ku-1 Central Wharf MA 02110, ku-Atlantic Avenue, eduze ne-Faneuil Hall Marketplace.

Ukufika kule ndawo kulula kakhulu, uma ungawazi umzila ungabuza noma ubani ohlala e-Boston futhi uzokutshela ukuthi ufika kanjani lapho. INew England Aquarium ingenye yezindawo eziheha izivakashi eBoston futhi ngakolunye uhlangothi ngoba isendaweni edumile yaseHarvard Square.

Amanani

i-aquarium entsha ye-england

Amanani okungena e-New England Aquarium ahlukaniswa kanje:

  • Ukungena kwabantu abadala kunenani elingu-$32.
  • Ezinganeni ezineminyaka emi-3 kuye kweyi-11 intengo ingu-$23.
  • Kubantu abangaphezu kweminyaka engama-60, ukungena ngama- $ 30.
  • Ukungena kwezingane ezingaphansi kweminyaka emi-3 kanye namalungu e-aquarium kumahhala.

I-New England Aqurium ine-cinema yezivakashi zayo, amanani ami kanje:

  • Ukungena kwabantu abadala kunenani elingu-$10.
  • Ezinganeni ezineminyaka emi-3 kuye kweyi-11 kanye nabantu abangaphezu kweminyaka engama-60, inani lingama-$8.
  • Abantu abadala abangamalungu intengo yokungena ngu-$9.
  • Izingane ezingamalungu ezineminyaka engu-3-11 zingama-$7 ukuze zingene.

Futhi banemibukiso yeWhale Watch. Amanani ami kanje:

  • Kubantu abadala izindleko zingu-$60.
  • Izingane ezineminyaka emi-3 kuye kweyi-11 intengo ingu-$40.
  • Izingane ezingaphansi kweminyaka engu-3 ubudala, ukungena ngu-$23.
  • Kubantu abangaphezu kuka-$65 imali yokungena ngu-$52.
  • Ilungu elidala linezindleko zama-$50.40.
  • Emalungwini ezingane ezineminyaka emi-3 kuye kweyi-11 ubudala ukungena ngu-$33,60 kanti izingane ezingaphansi kweminyaka emi-3 ubudala ngu-$15.12.
  • Amalungu angaphezu kweminyaka engama-65 ubudala, izindleko zingu-$43,68.
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Amahora we-New England Aquarium

El I-New England Aquarium ivulekele umphakathi nsuku zonke ngaphandle kukaKhisimusi no-Thanksgiving, nakuba ziphinde zivule kamuva ngoSuku LukaNcibijane.

Uma ufuna ukuvakashela i-New England Aquarium, kufanele uhlale ukhumbula ukuthi amahora okuvakasha ayahluka ngokuya ngesizini yonyaka.

  • Entwasahlobo nasehlobo, kuba NgoMsombuluko kuya kuLwesihlanu kusukela ngo-9:00 AM kuya ku-5:00 PM. NgeMigqibelo namaSonto kusukela ngo-9:00 AM kuya ku-6:000 PM.
  • Ekwindla nasebusika, kuba NgeSonto kuya ngoLwesine kusukela ngo-9:00 AM kuya ku-6:00 PM. Amahora okuvula ngoLwesihlanu nangoMgqibelo asuka ku-9:00 AM futhi anwebeka aze afike ku-7:00 PM

Izinzuzo ze-Boston Aquarium

i-aquarium entsha ye-england

Nazi ezinye ilukuluku mayelana ne-New England Aquarium.

  • I-Boston Aquarium inikeza izinsiza eziningi zocwaningo, ukongiwa kanye nokufundisa izilwane ezisengozini yokushabalala.
  • I-New England Aquarium, iyi-aquarium yesine edolobheni laseBoston.
  • Ngesikhathi kuvulwa i-Giant Ocean Tank, bekuyithangi lamanzi anosawoti elikhulu kunawo wonke emhlabeni.
  • El inkalankala yesicathulo samahhashi yase-Atlantic ekhonjiswa e-Edge to the Sea Tidepool, ayifani nenkalankala naphezu kwegama, nakuba ihlobene nezicabucabu.
  • I-aquarium inemibukiso yepenguin emi-3 enengqikithi Izinhlobo ezingama-80 zezinhlobo ezahlukahlukene.

Yini ongayibona e-New England Aquarium?

Si deseas ir a visitar el New England Aquarium, puedes obtener un folleto en la entrada el cual te indicará wazi kuphi encuentra cada exhibición y una guía de visita. Esta última contiene el programa del día y los horarios en que se desarrollaran las presentaciones y espectáculos.

i-aquarium entsha ye-england

Izilwane eziyingxenye yombukiso ngamunye zikhonjwa ngesithombe, igama ngesiNgisi namagama azo esayensi, ukuze zikwazi ukuzibona.

Ngezansi sichaza ukuthi imibukiso nezinto ezikhangayo i-Boston Aquarium enazo kubavakashi bayo zihlanganisani.

Indawo yokusebenzelana yokongiwa kwezimfudu zasolwandle

I-New England Aquarium inesikhala esihloselwe imibukiso esebenzisanayo. Inhloso ukukhombisa izivakashi ngendlela engokoqobo ukuthi kunjani inqubo ukuxilongwa, ukwelashwa kanye nokuvuselelwa kwezimfudu.

Namuhla iBoston Aquarium ingumholi ekucwaningeni izimfudu ezisengozini yokushabalala. Esikhaleni esinikezelwe kulezi zilwane, uzokwazi ukufunda ukuthi imiphakathi nezinhlangano zihlangana kanjani ngenhloso yokuvikela indawo yazo.

Ngaphakathi kombukiso osebenzisanayo, abasebenzi base-aquarium babelana ngezindaba lapho basize khona ngempumelelo ukuhlenga izilwane ezisengozini.

I-Atlantic Harbour Seals

I-Atlantic Harbour Seals

Lo mbukiso utholakala emnyango we-New England Aquarium, lapho i-Atlantic Harbour Seals izokwamukela ngeseshini yokuqeqesha.

Ngaphakathi kwesikhala kunemindeni emibili yezimvu zamanzi futhi ngayinye inegama eliqokiwe. Uma ungena kulo mbukiso, bathatha isithombe sakho abakudayisela sona esinesizinda esikhethekile.

Izakhamizi eziningi kanye nezivakashi ziza ukuzobona izimvu zamanzi emnyango, ngisho noma zingahlosile ukungena ku-aquarium.

Ushaka noRay Touch Tanks

Ushaka noRay Touch Tanks

Lokhu kukhanga kubhekwa njengenye yezinto eziheha kakhulu izivakashi, ngenxa yokuthi imisebe noshaka abancane bangathintwa.

Ezinye zezibonelo zemisebe ezigqamayo kulo mbukiso imisebe yase-Atlantic, imisebe ephuzi, imisebe yoklebe nemisebe yezixhobo, phakathi kokunye. Ngokuqondene nezibonelo zoshaka, uzothola idube shark, i-coral cat shark, phakathi kwabanye.

Indawo okutholakala kuyo oshaka nemisebe iyixhaphozi lomhlume elakhiwe kabusha, ngaphakathi kwethangi elivulekile.

Izingane ziwujabulela ngempela lo mbukiso we-aquarium njengoba zikwazi ukuthinta izilwane. Indawo ekhangayo inabasebenzi abanomthwalo wemfanelo, ababonisa ukuthi izilwane kufanele zithintwe kanjani. Baphinde basize ukucacisa noma yiluphi ulwazi izivakashi ezinalo.

Indlela efanele yokuthinta izilwane ukufaka isandla sakho kancane kancane ethangini bese usigcina singanyakazi, ngale ndlela izilwane zizosondela zodwa. Uma kwenzeka ufuna ukuzama ukuzithinta wedwa, kufanele wazi ukuthi zingaluma. Benza lesi senzo njengempendulo yokuzivikela, ngoba bacabanga ukuthi bayahlaselwa.

Isayensi Yoshaka

Isayensi ye-Sharks Boston aquarium

Lo mbukiso umangalisa kakhulu, ngenxa yokuthi uzokwazi ukubona izinhlobo ezahlukene zoshaka abavela kuwo wonke umhlaba kanye nobukhulu obuhlukahlukene.

Phakathi nendawo, kuboniswa ukuzijabulisa kukashaka, onobukhulu obukhulu futhi onolwazi olufanele, njengezinye izilwane.

Kungase kukuthande:  Cape Cod, Massachusetts United States

Esinye sezibonelo ozozithola embukisweni i-catshark enomsila omude, i-sunfish enezimpondo, i-sunfish yaseJapane kanye ne-atelomycterus mamoratus.

AmaPenguins ase-Afrika

Lo mbukiso ubonakala ngokuthandeka kakhulu, njengoba unezilwane ezihlazisayo, ezaziwa ngeSpanishi ngokuthi amaphengwini aseKapa noma ase-Afrika. Lolu hlobo yilona lodwa oluhlala kule izwekazi Ama-Afrika futhi njengamanje asengozini yokushabalala.

Lezi zilwane ngokuvamile ziteketiswa ngesiNgisi ngokuthi i-jackass penguin, ngoba zikhipha imisindo efana nezimbongolo.

Ophengwini bondliwa ngabalindi ababili, kodwa futhi banemisebenzi ebavumela ukuba baqinise imvelo yabo yezilwane zokuzingela, ukuze bangakhohlwa. Lo msebenzi uphethwe yizivakashi, okuguquguqukayo kuhlanganisa ukuhambisa izinhlanzi ukuze zizibambe.

AmaPenguins Amancane Aluhlaza

I-Little Blue Penguins Boston Aquarium

Lo mbukiso ubonakala ngokwethula amaphengwini aluhlaza avela ogwini lwase-Australia, eNew Zealand naseTasmania. Ngenxa yobukhulu balezi zilwane zibonakala zingamaphuphu, kodwa zingamaphengwini amadala, njengoba kuchazwe kabanzi kuphosta yolwazi yalo mbukiso.

Isici esibalulekile sala penguin ukuthi anezimpaphe eziluhlaza okwesibhakabhaka futhi athathwa njengezinhlobo ezincane kunazo zonke emhlabeni.

I-Rockhopper Penguins

I-Rockhopper Penguins

Umbukiso wesithathu wepenguin ugqama ngombala wawo ophuzi ngaphezu kweso futhi unikeza umbono weshiya elikhulu.

Izibonelo ozozithola amapenguin e-rockhopper, ayingxenye yezinhlobo zama-crested penguin.

Lolu hlobo lubonakala ngokuhlala emanzini abandayo kakhulu., ngaphakathi kombukiso kukhona iphaneli elikuvumela ukuthi uhlole izinga lokushisa lamanzi ngezikhathi ezithile.

I-Blue Planet Action Center

Lesi sikhala sibonakala ngokuba umbukiso wokufundisa. Umgomo uwukwenza izivakashi zazi ngenselele nokushintsha kwesimo sezulu ulwandle olubhekene nalo.

Lo mbukiso unendawo ebizwa ngeLobster Nursey, ebonisa ipulazi lama-lobster elikwenye indawo. Uzokwazi ukubuka izigaba ezahlukene ezihlanganisa ukuthuthukiswa kwamalobster. Ungakwazi futhi ukubona umehluko phakathi kwama-lobster aseYurophu nawaseMelika.

Igalari YaseTropical

Igalari ye-Tropical Boston aquarium

 Le galari yakhiwe imibukiso ehambisanayo, okuyilezi:

  • Umphakathi we-Pacific Reef: Kulo mbukiso kunezinhlobo ezingaba ngu-70 zezinhlanzi ezimibalabala kakhulu, ezivame ukuhlala emanzini ashisayo e-coral reef ePacific Ocean.
  • Amakhorali Aphilayo: Amakhorali aphilayo ayavezwa.
  • Izilwane Eziyingozi: Leli thangi lezinhlanzi libonisa izinhlobo zezinhlanzi eziyingozi kakhulu. Zibonakala ngokuzivikela ezilwaneni ezizidlayo ezinama-spikes anobuthi, okungaba yingozi kubantu.
  • I-cephalopods: lapha uzothola isibonelo se-mollusk ebizwa ngokuthi i-cuttlefish, isici esivelele soLwandle iMedithera.
  • Iziqhingi zasePhoenix: uzothola izinhlanzi eziningi ongeke ukwazi ukuzikhomba zonke, nakuba ulwazi olunezithombe zabo lukhona.
  • ULwandle Lwenkantolo: Uzokwazi ukubona izinhlanzi nenkanyezi. Phakathi kwezinhlanzi ezivelele kunazo zonke i-Opistognathus rosenblatti, inhlanzi enamachashazi aluhlaza okwesibhakabhaka. Yakha umgodi ngaphakathi kwendawo isebenzisa umlomo wayo.
  • I-Western Pacific Deep Reef: Uzobona izinhlobo ezimbili, eyokuqala i-Monocentris japonicus eyaziwa ngokuthi i-Japanese uphayinaphu fish kanti eyesibili i-Sacura margaritacea.

 

I-New Balance Foundation Marine Mammal Centre

I-New Balance Foundation Marine Mammal Centre

Kungumbukiso otholakala ngaphandle kwe-aquarium. Imibukiso enamabhubesi olwandle evela eCalifornia kanye nezimvu zamanzi ezinoboya be-arctic zibanjelwa lapha. Lezi zilwane zijabula nabagcini bazo echibini, ngesikhathi esifanayo zifaka imibukiso yezivakashi zase-aquarium.

Ngenxa yokuguquguquka okukhiqizwa yilesi siheko, sikwenza kube enye yezintandokazi zezingane nomndeni. Ngokuvamile kugcwele kakhulu.

I-Giant Ocean Tank

Indawo ehlelelwe lo mbukiso ithathwa njengobuciko be-aquarium. Isitsha sokudoba esikhulu esinezitezi ezine, lapho kuhlala khona imisebe, oshaka nezilwane eziningi zasolwandle. Ethangini, i-coral reef yase-Caribbean yenziwa kabusha kanye nezilwane zasolwandle okukhulunywe ngazo ngenhla.

Izilwane ezingaphezu kuka-2000 zihlala ethangini elikhulu lezinhlanzi. Izilwane ezivelele kunazo zonke ufudu oluluhlaza olubizwa ngokuthi i-Myrtle olwafika e-aquarium ngo-1970. Kukhona futhi nolunye ufudu oluncane kune-Myrtle, olungolwe-loggerhead turtle.

oshaka bekhanda lefosholo

Ezinye izilwane ongazithola yilezi oshaka bekhanda lefosholo, ama-eels nezinhlanzi ezinobukhulu obuhlukahlukene nemibala.

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Phezu kwethangi ungabona izimfudu zilunguze ukuze ziphefumule. Ungabona futhi imisebe kanye noshaka wefosholo ebhukuda phezulu.

Igalari Yamanzi Apholile

Lo mbukiso wezilwane zasolwandle wakhiwe ngamathangi ezinhlanzi ayisithupha alandelanayo ahlukaniswe yaba imibukiso elandelayo:

 

  • Umphakathi we-Australian Temperate Reef: Uzothola izinhlobo ezimbili zamadrako asolwandle akhona, udrako wasolwandle ovamile kanye nodrako onama-demarfoliaceous. Ngamunye uwumndeni wama-seahorses.
  • I-Sea Jellies: umbukiso onikezelwe i-jellyfish
  • Izinhlanzi Zasendulo: uzokwazi ukubona izinhlobo ezithile zezilwane ebezilokhu zishintsha futhi zijwayelana nezimo ezishintshayo. Izinhlobo ezigqamayo yi-lungfish, i-protopterus annectens evela e-Afrika kanye ne-salamander yaseMexico.
  • Umbukiso Wesikole: zibonakala ngokwethula izinhlobo ezihamba ngamaqembu, kunjalo nje nge-herring. Inhloso wukukwazi ukuzivikela ezilwaneni ezidla ezinye.
  • I-Salt Marsh: es una pecera donde se recrea una marisma salina, donde podrás observar algunas especies Njengezinkanyezi del mar y los mejillones azules.
  • I-Deep Reef Dynamics: Kungumbukiso lapho ungabona khona izinhlobo zezilwane ezihlala emanzini amnyama najulile ezixhobo zamakhorali.

Igalari Yamanzi Ahlanzekile

Le gallery inikezelwe ezilwaneni ezihlala emifuleni. Isatshalaliswa ngamathangi ezinhlanzi amaningana asatshalaliswa kanje:

 

  • Imifula yaseMelika: Izinhlobo ezimbalwa zoMfula i-Amazon kanye ne-New England ziyakhonjiswa.
  • Kusukela emfuleni ukuya oLwandle: Kungumbukiso okuhloswe ngawo ukukhombisa lezo zinhlobo ezazalelwa emanzini ahlanzekile, kodwa lapho sezikhulile zihlala emanzini ahlanzekile olwandle. Izinhlobo ezinjenge-alewife, sturgeon, salmon phakathi kwezinye, zizalelwa emanzini ahlanzekile, kodwa zilandela imisinga yomfula zize zifike olwandle.
  • Umfula Wokuphila: Uzothola ama-eel kagesi, okuyizinhlobo ezicishe zibe yizimpumputhe, kodwa ugesi eziwukhiqizayo uzivumela ukuba zinyakaze futhi ziphakele.
  • Amazon Iziqubuzelayo: Kungumbukiso lapho uzobuka khona izilwane ezihuquzelayo ezivela e-Amazon njengenhlwathi, ufudu olunekhanda elibomvu, phakathi kwezinye.
  • Amaxoxo aseNingizimu Melika: uzothola izinhlobo ezine zamasele amancane anobuthi aqhamuka eNingizimu Melika.
  • Umfula i-AmazonIMP: Uzobona izinhlanzi ezivela emfuleni i-Amazon ezidla imbewu, izinambuzane nezithelo.
  • AmaPiranhas: Kungumbukiso lapho bebonisa khona izinhlobo ezimbalwa zama-piranha, okugqama kakhulu i-piranha enesisu esibomvu.

 

Emaphethelweni e-Sea Tidepool

 

Embukisweni lapho ungabona khona izilwane zasolwandle ezinjenge-starfish, izimbaza, izimbaza, ama-sea urchins, izinkalankala ze-Atlantic horseshoe, phakathi kwabanye. Kule ndawo ungakwazi ukufaka izandla zakho emanzini ukuze uthinte izilwane.

 

Izinkalankala ze-Atlantic horseshoe zibonakala ngokuba ngesinye sezilwane ezindala ezingase zibe khona.

Northern Waters Gallery

Le galari ihloselwe ukukhombisa izinhlanzi zezilwane ezihlukahlukene ezihlala emanzini ajulile, abandayo oGwini oluseNyakatho ye-United States, kokubili olwandle i-Atlantic ne-Pacific. Imibukiso imi kanje:

 

  • I-Olympic Coast Sanctuary: Uzothola izilwane ezivela olwandle i-Atlantic Ocean ogwini olusenyakatho-mpumalanga ye-United States. Izinhlobo ezivelele yi-giant Pacific octopus, inhlanzi, i-wolf eel, ukhukhamba olwandle, phakathi kwezinye.
  • i-goosefish: kulesi sitsha sezinhlanzi kuboniswa i-monkfish yaseMelika, ebonakala ngokuqalwa kwe-gastronomically.
  • E-Eastport, eMaine: Lo mbukiso umangalisa kakhulu ngenxa yodoti ongemuva, njengamabhodlela kabhiya aphukile nezinkomishi. Phakathi kwezinhlobo ezenza ukuphila kuleli tanki lezinhlanzi kukhona i-starfish, ama-croakers, ama-anemones, phakathi kwezinye.
  • Sandy Button Community: lapha ungabona izinhlanzi ezihlala phansi olwandle njenge-halibut noma imisebe.
  • I-Boulder Reef: Lo mbukiso uzobonisa izinhlobo zezilwane ezitholakala endaweni eyidwala yase-Stllwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary.
  • Izinyoni zasolwandle: Kungumbukiso obekwe ogwini lwe-Boston Islands, futhi inombono wetheku. Lapha uzohlangana nezinyoni ezifudukayo. Abaningi babo babe yisivikelo esilimele, esinomthelela omubi ekufakweni kwabo endaweni yabo, ngoba ngeke basinde

Isikhungo se-Yawkey Coral Reef

Isikhungo se-Yawkey Coral Reef

Kule ndawo uzothola imibukiso eqondiswe ezinhlotsheni zezilwane ezivela e-Caribbean reefs. I-Yawkey Coral Reef Centre ihlukaniswe yaba imibukiso elandelayo:

  • I-Caribbean Reef Juvenile Fishes: lapha ungathola izinhlobo ezimbili zezinhlanzi ezisencane, inkomo noma inhlanzi yebhokisi noma i-chromis canea.
  • I-Caribbean Frogfish: Kuleli thangi uzothola izinhlobo ezifana ne-frogfish enamabala kanye ne-crustacean, phakathi kwezinye.
  • I-Yellow Garden Eel: Nakuba igama lalo mbukiso lithi ingadi, kodwa awunazo izitshalo nezimbali. Lapha uzothola ama-eels amancane aziwa ngokuthi ama-eels engadini. Igama labo libangelwa ukuthi ingxenye yabo igqitshwe emhlabathini kanti enye ingxenye ibheke ngaphandle.
  • I-Caribbean Dwarf Seahorses: Kulo mbukiso uzothola ama-seahorses amancane, abonakala ngokunensa kakhulu.
  • I-Caribbean Morays: Uzokwazi ukubona izinhlobo ezimbili zama-moray eels, i-Echidna catenata kanye ne-Gymnothorax miliaris.
  • I-Caribbean Nearshore Reef: Uzothola izinhlobonhlobo ezinkulu zezinhlanzi, okuyi-Bodianus rufus, i-butterfly fish enamaphiko anamachashaza, i-Elacatinus, phakathi kwezinye.


Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kuhambisana nemigomo yethu yezimiso zokuziphatha zokuhlela. Okwamanje sisebenzela ukulungisa nokuthuthukisa okuqukethwe kwethu ngezinye izilimi.

Uma ungumhumushi ogunyaziwe ungasibhalela nokusebenza nathi. (isiJalimane, iSpanishi, isiFulentshi)

Ukuze ubike iphutha lokuhumusha noma ukuthuthukiswa, chofoza lapha.

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