I-Divine Comedy

I-Divine Comedy kaDante Alighieri iyinkondlo edumile yaseNtaliyane yenkathi ephakathi ebonisa izindawo zokuphila kwangemva kokufa. UDante (owazalwa ngo-1265) wabhala endaweni ethile phakathi kuka-1308 nokufa kwakhe ngo-1321, ngesikhathi esekudingisweni edolobheni lakubo eFlorence, Italia, eyayikhuthazelele impi yombango.

I-Divine Comedy ihlukaniswe yaba imiqulu emithathu ehlukene, ngayinye iqukethe ama- cantos (noma izahluko) angu-33. Le miqulu ithi Isihogo, Isihlanzo, nePharadesi.

Okuqukethwe

Isifinyezo kanye ne-Synapse

Kule nkondlo enezingxenye ezintathu eyingqophamlando, u-Dante Alighieri uthatha abafundi bakhe ohambweni oluya eZulwini ngohambo kuqala eSihogweni naseSihlanzweni. Uhambo lukamoya oludalula ububi besono ngendaba yomuntu wokuqala womlingiswa oyinhloko okuthiwa u-Dante the Pilgrim.

Uhambo lomhambi edabula ezindaweni zabafileyo luqala ngobusuku bangaphambi koLwesihlanu Oluhle kuze kube uLwesithathu ngemva kwePhasika ngonyaka ka-1300. Imbongi yaseRoma uVirgil ingumqondisi womhambi esihogweni nasesihlanzweni. U-Beatrice, omele owesifazane okahle kaDante, uhola indlela esibhakabhakeni.

Uma kubhekwa ukubaluleka kwayo okungokwenkolo, akumangalisi lokho I-Divine Comedy yakhiwe njengoziqu-zintathu. Izigaba ezintathu ezishiwo ngokwemibhalo zaziwa ngokuthi ama-canticles futhi zengeza imigqa eyi-14.233. I-cantica ngayinye yakhiwe ama-cantos angamashumi amathathu nantathu, aphinde anikeze incazelo enombolweni "ezintathu." Inkondlo inesingeniso, esibhekwa njengengxenye ye-cantica yokuqala, enikeza umsebenzi ingqikithi yama-cantos ayikhulu.

Ingxenye yokuqala yenkondlo, Isihogo, uthola uDante elahlekile esonweni, emelelwa ngokomfanekiso njengehlathi elimnyama. Uhlaselwa ibhubesi, ingwe kanye nempisi futhi akakwazi ukuthola indlela yokuphuma ephephile, noma esimweni senkolo senkondlo, insindiso. Lesi simo simelelwa yintaba efihle ilanga. U-Virgil ekugcineni uyamkhulula futhi abaqondise ezweni elingaphansi.

Sonke isono esiseSihogweni sinesijeziso esingafanekisayo, ngisho nangokuxakayo, esilinganisa ubulungiswa. Njengesibonelo, ababoni abanesono noma ababhuli bamiselwe ukuhamba bebophe amakhanda abo ukuze bangakwazi ukwenza abakwenzile ekuphileni: babone okuzayo.

Kungase kukuthande:  I-Aeneid

Izilwane ezintathu ezihlasela uDante zifanekisela izono zokuzitika, ubudlova, nonya. Isihogo sakhiwe saba yiziyingi eziyisishiyagalolunye lapho izoni zihlukaniswa khona. Labo abahlushwa ukungakwazi ukuzibamba noma ukungakwazi ukuzibamba bawela emibuthanweni kusukela kweyodwa kuya kwemihlanu.

Ukuziqhenya noma udlame kwenza iziyingi zesithupha nesikhombisa. Ukukhwabanisa nobubi yizono ezihlobene neziyingi eziyisishiyagalombili nesishiyagalolunye. Ngayinye yendilinga isho ububi obujule futhi obujulile obuphelela emajukujukwini omhlaba, umbuso kaSathane. Izijeziso zezono zendilinga ngayinye ziyehluka.

Ngemva kokusinda ohambweni lokunqamula esihogweni, uVirgil uholela uDante esihlanzweni, intaba engaphesheya kwezwe eyakhiwa kusukela ekudalweni kwesihogo.

Intaba inezithambe eziyisikhombisa ezimelela izono eziyisikhombisa ezibulalayo. Emkhakheni weSihlanzo, izono zihlukaniswa kakhulu ngokusekelwe ezisusa kunasezenzweni zomuntu. Ngokwemfundiso yenkolo, kunesisekelo sobuKristu, nakuba uDante engasekelwe eBhayibhelini kuphela.

uthando yisihloko esibalulekile kwethi The Divine Comedy. Uthando luba yisono lapho luqhutshwa ukuqhosha, umona, noma intukuthelo. Kuyisono futhi lapho evilapha noma ebuthakathaka, noma enamandla kakhulu ekukhanukeni, ukuminza, noma ukuhaha.

Isifunda esengeziwe sesiHlanzo siyikhaya lase-Ante-Purgatory lalabo abakhishwe esontweni nalabo abafa, okungenzeka ukuthi baphendukile kodwa abangawatholanga amasiko. Isihlanzo singumfanekiso wempilo yobuKristu. Izingelosi ziphelezela imiphefumulo lapho ngethemba lokuthi bathole umusa waphezulu. Isakhiwo sePurgatory ngokombono wesayensi sibonisa ukuqonda kwenkathi ephakathi Yomhlaba njengendilinga.

Esigabeni sokugcina sohambo lwakhe olungcwele, u-Beatrice uphelezela u-Dante adlule eParaíso, okusho ukuthi iZulu. Umqondisa ezindaweni eziyisishiyagalolunye zesibhakabhaka. Ngenkathi isiHogo nesiHlanzo kwakusekelwe ekuhlukaniseni isono, iZulu lakhiwe ngokuzungeza izimfanelo ezine eziyinhloko kanye nezimfanelo ezintathu zemfundiso yenkolo.

Kungase kukuthande:  I-Ramayana

Imikhakha eyisikhombisa yokuqala yaseZulwini ihlobene nezimfanelo ezinhle zokuhlakanipha, ukuqina, ubulungiswa kanye nokuzithiba, futhi yilapho labo abahlanganisa lezi zimfanelo ezinhle betholakala khona.

Umkhakha wesishiyagalombili uqukethe labo abazuza ukholo, ithemba, nothando, okubhekwa njengezimfanelo ezinhle zemfundiso yenkolo futhi ezimelela ukufezwa kokupheleliswa komuntu. Umbuthano wesishiyagalolunye wezulu yindawo yezingelosi, izidalwa azizange zithintwe isono. Izinga lokugcina, ngomqondo othile eliletha ingqikithi eyishumi, i-Empyrean okutholakala kuyo ingqikithi kaNkulunkulu.

IPharadesi ungowomoya kakhudlwana kunezinye izifunda ezimbili ze I-Divine Comedy. UDante uxhumana nabangcwele abahlukahlukene lapho, okuhlanganisa uThomas Aquinas kanye nabaNgcwele uPetru noJohane. Ekupheleni kombhalo, uDante une-epiphany, nakuba engakwazi ukuchaza ngokugcwele, wembula imfihlakalo kaKristu futhi azizwe emunye noNkulunkulu.

Uhlobo: Epic

I-epic ivamise ukuba yi-canto ende (inkondlo esevesini) exoxa indaba eyingqophamlando. I-Divine Comedy iqukethe ama-canto ayikhulu abhalwe nge-terza rima, ivesi lesiNtaliyane elasungulwa uDante. Iqukethe izitanza ezinemigqa emithathu lapho umugqa wesi-2 westanza esisodwa unemilolozelo enomugqa woku-1 nowesi-3 wesigaba esilandelayo.

Isihloko, I-Divine Comedy, akusho ukuthi inkondlo iyahlekisa. Kunalokho, inkondlo “iyihlaya” ngomqondo wokuthi ingeyesitayela sakudala esasikhona sihambisana nezinhlekelele. Izinhlekelele zendabuko zazinamacebo aqala ngokujabula noma isenzakalo esihle, kodwa agcina ngokudabuka, ukufa, noma ukuphila okucindezelekile. Amahlaya, athathwa njengohlobo oluyisisekelo, ageleza abheke kolunye uhlangothi nenhlekelele, noma okungenani ukungajabuli, afinyelela umvuthwandaba ojabulisayo noma onethemba.

Personajes

  • UDante: Umlingiswa oyinhloko, noma umlingiswa oyinhloko wenkondlo umbhali ngokwakhe. Ayikho enye imbongi eyingqophamlando ngaphambi kwayo, kuhlanganise noHomer noVirgil, eyayibe ngabalingiswa abayinhloko ezinkondlweni zayo.
  • Virgil: imbongi yaseRoma engasekho uPublius Virgil Maro iphelezela uDante eSihogweni naseSihlanzweni. Ifanekisela ingqondo yomuntu. U-Virgil (70-19 BC), imbongi uDante ehlonishwa kakhulu, wabhala i-epic enkulu yesiLatini. I-Aeneid.
  • U-Beatrice Portinari: (1265-1290) uqondisa uDante endaweni yasezulwini. U-Beatrice, omele ukholo nomusa, wayewuthando lokuqala lukaDante.
  • I-Saint Bernard: indela yaseFrance yakwaCistercian no-abbot, uSaint Bernard waseClairvaux (1090-1153), uqondisa futhi uyale uDante lapho imbongi ifika endaweni ephakeme kakhulu yezulu.
Kungase kukuthande:  Mahabharata

I-Análisis

Umsebenzi kaDante, nakuba uvumelana kakhulu nemfundiso yamaKatolika yekhulu le-XNUMX, wembula umbono womuntu. Ngokwesibonelo, ingxenye yesithathu kaDante yokuhlukanisa ukuphila kwangemva kokufa eSihogweni, Esihlanzweni naseZulwini kulandela imfundiso yenkolo evamile, kodwa ukuchaza kwakhe isiHlanzo njengentaba eseningizimu nenkabazwe kwaba ukuzisungulela kwakhe.

UDante akalokothi amelane nenkolo, nakuba ngezinye izikhathi emelene nabefundisi. Ngezinye izikhathi wayegxeka abaholi benkolo ngenxa yokuthi wayenombono ocacile womuntu siqu ngendima engokomoya yesonto nendima yezwe yombuso, ngamunye wawo ayewubheka njengomiswe ngokwaphezulu endimeni yawo eqondile.

UDante wayenombono ocacile wezimiso zobuKristu. Emsebenzini wakhe, ubonisa isiko lothando lwenkantolo oludlula uthando lwaphezulu. Iphinde iveze uthando njengembangela eyinhloko yazo zonke izenzo ezimbi zomuntu.

UDante usebenzisa umqondo we-contrapasso (ukubuyisela) ukuze anikeze isizathu sokubhekana nezenzo ezinhle nezimbi phakathi nokuphila kanye nokuthola indawo efanele yawo wonke umuntu ekuphileni kwangemva kokufa. Sonke isenzo somuntu sithola isijeziso noma umvuzo ongagcini nje ngokulingana kodwa ongokomfanekiso.

Isibonelo, izoni eziphendukayo ePurgatory zihamba emlilweni ukuze zishise umlilo wasemhlabeni wenkanuko. U-Dante usebenzisa isithombe somlilo kancane ukusigcina sifaneleka ngokomfanekiso futhi sigweme isono esiwubukhazikhazi; ukhetha ukukhombisa amakhaza obubi.


Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kuhambisana nemigomo yethu yezimiso zokuziphatha zokuhlela. Okwamanje sisebenzela ukulungisa nokuthuthukisa okuqukethwe kwethu ngezinye izilimi.

Uma ungumhumushi ogunyaziwe ungasibhalela nokusebenza nathi. (isiJalimane, iSpanishi, isiFulentshi)

Ukuze ubike iphutha lokuhumusha noma ukuthuthukiswa, chofoza lapha.

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