Ukuhlaziywa nesifinyezo se-Ethics for Amador, kufunde lapha

Umlobi odumile uFernando Savater usinikeza umsebenzi obusohlwini lwezincwadi ezithengiswa kakhulu emazweni ahlukahlukene, kulesi sihloko esithakazelisayo konke okuhlobene nalo msebenzi wokubhala, ungayeki ukufunda lokhu. isifinyezo se Ukuziphatha kwe-Amador, uzoyithanda.

Isifinyezo Sezimiso Zokuziphatha ze-Amador

Isifinyezo Sezimiso Zokuziphatha ze-Amador

I-Ethics for Amador kwakuyindatshana eyabhalwa ekuqaleni kweminyaka yamashumi ayisishiyagalolunye, ngumSpanishi uFernando Savater, yendodana yakhe, igama layo elakhuthaza umsebenzi.

I-eseyi inezahluko eziyisishiyagalolunye, ezigxile ezimisweni zokuziphatha, isimilo kanye nefilosofi yobukhona. Nasi isifinyezo esifushane se-Ethics for Amador, ngesahluko:

Isahluko sokuqala: Imayelana nani i-Ethics?

Esahlukweni sokuqala sesifinyezo se-Ethics for Amador ka-Fernando Savater, igama elithi ethics licutshungulwa futhi lihlobene eduze negama elithi inkululeko.

Kusitshela ukuthi umuntu ngamunye angakhetha phakathi kokunye okuhlukahlukene kanye nezinketho, nokho lokhu akuhambisani nokwenza yonke into esiyifunayo noma esikucabangayo, noma kokubili okuhlanganisayo.

Kodwa singakhetha esikufunayo, phakathi kwenani elikhulu lamathuba akhona futhi kuyadingeka ukuba nezimiso zokuziphatha ukuze sikhethe inkambo efanele yokuphila kwethu, efanele.

Impela zikhona izinto esingeke sizikhethe, njengosuku lokuzalwa, abazali bethu, ubuzwe bethu, ukuhlushwa isifo esithile, ukuba nengozi, ukuba mude noma mfushane, noma izimo zangaphandle, njengempi, ukuhlasela, njll.

Isifinyezo Sezimiso Zokuziphatha ze-Amador

Asikhululekile ukuzikhethela, ukukhetha noma ukunquma ukuthi yini engenzeka kithi, kodwa sikhululekile ukuphendula kulokho okwenzeka kithi, isibonelo, ukuba nengqondo, ukuhlakanipha, ukulalela, rebeldes, ukuziphindiselela, ukuxaka noma kunjalo sinquma ukwenza.

Kunamathuba amaningi, ngakho-ke uma esizamayo kuwukungawenzi amaphutha noma ukuwenza izikhathi ezimbalwa ngangokunokwenzeka, kufanele sithuthukise lokho abakubiza ngokuthi ukwazi ukuphila noma ukuziphatha, sizame ukuqondisa izimpilo zethu ngendlela engcono kakhulu.

Yilokhu okushiwoyo, kuyasehlukanisa kwezinye izidalwa eziphilayo. Ngokwesibonelo, ingxenye enkulu yezilwane, ezibuswa umzwelo wemvelo, okungukuthi, ukuthambekela kwazo okungokwemvelo ukwenza nokungenzi izinto ezithile nezithize. Inkululeko yokuzikhethela iyona okufanele isiholele ekucabangeni ngalokho okuwusizo noma okusilungele, okuyilokho esivame ukukubheka njengokuhle noma okubi.

Kodwa-ke, uma kukhona ukungaqondakali nokungabaza, isibonelo ngokusetshenziswa kwezidakamizwa ezithuthukisa imizwa okwesikhashana, kodwa ngokuhamba kwesikhathi ziwohloka impilo yethu engokomzimba nengqondo. Kulokhu sinenkululeko enesibopho, esivumela ukuba sakhe izimiso zokuziphatha zethu siqu. U-Savater usikhombisa ngezibonelo ezithile kulesi sahluko ukuthi sinenkululeko yokudala nokukhetha indlela yethu yokuphila.

Singakhetha phakathi kokuhle nokulungile, okunenzuzo kakhulu kithi, uma kuqhathaniswa nalezo eziyingozi, ezimbi noma eziphazamisayo. Futhi, ngokuba nethuba lokukhetha, ukusungula nokudala impilo yethu, singenza amaphutha. Ngakho-ke, kubalulekile futhi kuwukuhlakanipha kakhulu ukunaka esikwenzayo nesinqumayo, sizama ngangokunokwenzeka ukuzuza nokuthuthukisa lolo lwazi lokuphila, olusisiza ukuba singawenzi amaphutha esinqumweni sethu.

Iqiniso liwukuthi umbhali uzama ukudlulisela kumfundi wale ndaba umbono wokuthi kusezandleni zethu ukukhetha uhlobo lwempilo esiyifunayo, ukuhlukanisa okuhle nokubi nokukhetha okufanele. Ukuthola lokho okubizwa ngokuthi ubuciko bokuphila kuhlobene nezimiso zokuziphatha.

Isahluko sesibili: Imiyalo, izifiso kanye namasiko.

Maphakathi nalesi sifinyezo se-Ethics for Amador, umbhali ukhombisa ukuthi kunezinto ezilungele izimpilo zethu nabanye ezingekho, kodwa akulula ngaso sonke isikhathi ukuhlukanisa ukuthi yikuphi, kunezikhathi lapho lokhu kungenjalo. yaziswa ngokucacile .

Ngisho noma singeke sikwazi ukungenelela ezimweni ezihlukahlukene ezivelayo, sikhululekile ukuzikhethela ukuthi sizobhekana kanjani nalokho okwenzeka kithi. Kwesinye isikhathi impilo ikuthatha ikuphushele ezindaweni nezimo obungazilindele, ubhekane nezimo esingazikhethanga, kodwa okumele sibhekane nazo noma singathandi.

Omunye wabantu bokuqala ababhekana nalolu daba kwakungu-Aristotle, ecabanga ngesibonelo esilula, esisethula ngezansi:

Umkhumbi uthwala impahla ebaluleke kakhulu usuka kwelinye itheku uye kwelinye, kungazelelwe ngesikhathi sohambo umangazwa isiphepho esinamandla esiletha umphumela wokuthi ukaputeni kufanele anqume phakathi kwezinketho ezimbili:

  • Okokuqala, kodwa futhi okunengqondo kakhulu, ukulahla impahla olwandle, ngaleyo ndlela kusindise umkhumbi nabasebenzi.
  • Inketho yesibili ukugcina izimpahla zenani elikhulu nokubaluleka futhi ulinde isimo sezulu ukuba sithuthuke.

Kuyabonakala ukuthi into engcono kungaba wukulahla imithwalo kuphephiswe abasebenzi kodwa kuyaphambana nokuthi makwenziwe ngoba nakuba kwaziwa okumele kwenziwe kodwa kukhona umuntu angafuni ukukwenza. .

Isifiso sangempela sikakaputeni siwukuba afike ekhaya ephephile, kanye nethimba lakhe nempahla, kodwa ngeshwa lapho ebhekene nesiphepho akukho okunye angakwenza ngaphandle kokunquma okunye, okungase kubonakale kwamukeleka kakhudlwana noma kuhlakaniphe kakhulu.

Singasho ukuthi ukhululekile ukuzinqumela, kodwa empeleni akukho okunye angakwenza ngaphandle kokwenza kanjalo. Izikhathi eziningi ekuphileni kwansuku zonke sibhekana nokukhetha ezimweni ezibonakala zinzima noma ezithile, futhi izenzo zethu ngokuvamile ziyazenzakalela, ngaphandle kokucabanga okuningi, mhlawumbe zisabela emiyalweni ethile, imikhuba noma izifiso.

Noma iyiphi yalezi zinjini iqondisa ukunyakaza kwethu ukusuka kwelinye icala ukuya kwelinye nokuthi kulesi sifinyezo se-Ethics for Amador singakuchaza ngokuthi:

I-1-Imiyalo: lapho othile ekutshela ukuthi wenzeni, ngokuvamile bathatha amandla ngenxa yokwesaba njengoba kungase kube nesijeziso noma impindiselo, noma kunoma yikuphi ngenxa yothando noma ubuhlobo obukhona.

I-2-Imikhuba: kuwumkhuba noma isiko, iwumphumela wokwenza kube lula, futhi nakuyo kukhona uhlobo lokulalela imiyalo ethile.

I-3-Whims: ukwenza okusicasulayo noma okuzwakalayo.

Yomibili imiyalo nemikhuba inento eyodwa efana ngayo: ivela ngaphandle. Ngokuphambene nalokho, izifiso zivela ngaphakathi, zivela ngokwemvelo ngaphandle kwanoma ubani osiyala futhi ngaphandle kokulingisa noma ubani. Ngayinye yalezi zizathu isiholela endleleni ehlukile, isabela ezidingweni ezihlukene futhi ichaza kancane okuthandwayo kwezinqumo ezithile.

Isahluko 3: Yenza okufunayo

Lesi sifinyezo se-Ethics for Amador siqoqa imibono esemqoka yombhali, okuthe kulesi sahluko sesithathu athambekele ekwenzeni umfundi aqonde ukuthi ukhululekile ukunquma. Izinto eziningi esizenzayo yingoba kufanele sizenze, ngoba kuwumkhuba noma ziyindlela yokuzuza okuthile esikufunayo. Ezimweni ezibalulekile lokhu kunyakaza kuyamukeleka noma akwamukeleki, kuyakholisa noma cha.

Ngokwesibonelo, umkhuzi wamabutho waseJalimane uzama ukuthethelela ukubulawa kwezakhamuzi ezingamaJuda ngokuthi wayelandela imiyalo, kodwa lokhu akugculisi futhi akwamukeleki kwabaningi. Kwamanye amazwe kunokucwasa abantu bebala noma ongqingili futhi nakuba kuyingxenye yamasiko noma amasiko abo, akwamukelekile engxenyeni enkulu yomhlaba.

Ngalezi zibonelo sizama ukukhombisa nokuqonda ukuthi lezi zindlela zokwenza zingaba zilungile kwabanye abantu, kodwa hhayi kwabanye.

Kulesi sifinyezo se-Ethics for Amador, sizama ukukhombisa umlayezo umbhali afuna ukuwudlulisa, into elula njengokuthi: okulungile noma okungalungile empilweni yakho kufanele uzikhethele wena, ukhululekile ukwenza izinqumo zakho futhi wenze izinqumo zakho. izinqumo zakhe, ukhetho.

Ngakho-ke, kubalulekile futhi kubalulekile ukuthi ucabange ngamathuba amabili onawo ngaphambi kokwenza isinqumo noma ukuthatha isinyathelo. Lesi sahluko siyisimemo sokucabanga kabili ngaso sonke isikhathi osithathayo.

Lapho uthola i-oda, kufanele uhlale uzibuza ukuthi kungani ngenza lokhu?, ngokuvamile siphendula ngokuzenzakalelayo ukuthi kuwumyalelo, futhi umbuzo wesibili uthi kungani kufanele ngilalele? Ukulandela imiyalo ngaphandle kombuzo kufanelekile futhi kulungile eminyakeni yethu yokuqala yokuphila, njengoba sibancane futhi sincike.

Kodwa njengoba sikhula, kudingeka senze izinqumo ezivame ukuba yinkimbinkimbi ngenxa yobudala futhi okufanele sifunde ukubhekana nazo ngokwethu.

Ngakho-ke kufanele sazi ukuthi singakhululeka kanjani futhi sidale eyethu impilo, futhi singahlali silindele izimo noma abanye ukuthi basinqumele, njengoba lokhu kungasicindezela kakhulu.

Ngokwe-etymologically, igama elithi "ukuziphatha" livela egameni isimilo okuhlotshaniswa noma okuhlobene nesiko, ukusetshenziswa noma indlela yokuphila.

Nokho, igama elithi isimilo nenkululeko ekugcineni lihlotshaniswa ngokuqondile negama elithi isijeziso kanye nomvuzo.

Kubalulekile ukwengeza ukuthi ukuba muhle noma omubi akuwona amagama asetshenziswa ngokuziphatha kuphela, njengoba lawa anganquma izinto ezilula, njengokuthi ungumbhukudi onekhono noma cha, noma udlala ibhola kahle noma kabi. Ngaphambi kokwahlulela into ethile ngokuthi yinhle noma yimbi, kufanele uhlaziye into ngayinye kanye nesizathu ngasinye esishukumisela isenzo ngaphambi kokwahlulela.

Isihloko sesahluko sesithathu salesi sifinyezo se-Ethics for Amador, abayibiza ngokuthi yenza okufunayo, Kuyinto efana kakhulu nomyalo, obiza ukwenza ngokukhululeka, futhi ngokwenza uma uwulalela, awulaleli.

Kubalulekile ukuthi bathathele phezulu inkululeko yomuntu siqu, njengoba lokhu kumelela umthwalo wemfanelo ekukhetheni indlela yethu.

Ungaphambanisi "ukwenza okufunayo" ngokuthanda kwakho, okungukuthi, ungenzi into yokuqala efika engqondweni, ngoba nje sifuna ukukwenza kabi.

Ngaphambi kokuthatha isinqumo kufanele ngaso sonke isikhathi sicabange ngokucophelela ngesizathu esenza leso senzo, futhi lapho sinesinqumo sokugcina, cabanga futhi, ngoba kungase kwenzeke ukuthi sishintshe izingqondo zethu, ungakhohlwa ukuthi ungakwazi ukunqotshwa njalo.

Masikhumbule ukuthi ukuziphatha kuhlobene eduze namasiko nemithetho, engemihle noma engalungile ngaso sonke isikhathi.

Ngakho-ke, ngaso sonke isikhathi kudingekile ukuphenya futhi uhlole ukuthi yikuphi ukuziphatha kweqiniso nenkululeko yomuntu siqu, okokuqala ukubeka eceleni imiyalo, amasiko kanye nezifiso ukuze uthole izimpendulo ezifanele.

Isahluko Sesine: Zinike impilo emnandi

Enye yezinto ezanywa ukuzenza kucace esifingqweni se-Ethics for Amador, ukuthi ngaphambi kokwenza izinqumo, kufanele ubeke eceleni imiyalo nemikhuba, futhi ngalokhu imivuzo nezijeziso. Okusho ukuthi, yonke into ekuqondisayo ngaphandle kufanele ingabi khona lapho ukhetha, ukuze ingathonyeli intando yethu.

Ukwenza esikufunayo kuyilungelo lethu ngoba sikhululekile, kodwa sebenzisa inkululeko yakho ngendlela efanele. Okusho ukuthi, unganquma ukuthi yini oyicabangayo, kodwa kufanele ucace kakhulu kulokho okunqumayo futhi wazi imiphumela engase ihilele lokhu.Kubalulekile ukuba muhle nokwethembeka, kuqala kuwena.

Yenza okufunayo ngoba kuyahambisana, hhayi nje ngoba kuyilokho esikufunayo ngaleso sikhathi. Izikhathi eziningi, abantu bafuna izinto eziphikisanayo, ezingqubuzana ngokusobala, futhi ngenxa yalesi sizathu kufanele sikwazi ukusungula ngemibandela ukuthi yini eyisisekelo ngempela.

Ngemva kokuba nesithakazelo nokuhlolisisa ukuziphatha nenkululeko, sibekela eceleni yonke into enemibandela noma eyithintayo, singenza esikufunayo, njengoba kusungulwe esahlukweni esandulele sesifinyezo se-Ethics for Amador.

Kodwa hhayi ngokumane ukwenze, akuphileli ukuphila, uzama ukwenza noma ukuba ngendlela engcono kakhulu, kunoma yisiphi isici noma umbono. Kungaphezu kwakho konke ukuzama ukusinika impilo enhle, ukuba nokwenza okuhle kakhulu, ukuze sijabule.

Isifinyezo se-Ethics for Amador sisethula ngendaba yeBhayibheli ka-Esawu noJakobe, amadodana angamawele ka-Isaka noRebeka. Bathi ubudlelwano babazalwane babunzima kakhulu kusukela esigabeni sokukhulelwa kwabo. U-Esawu waba ngowokuqala ukuzalwa, kanjalo waba indlalifa, njengoba kwaba ubuzibulo bakhe.

Phakathi kwezinto eziningi okwakuzotholwa njengefa, kwakuyisivumelwano phakathi kukaNkulunkulu no-Abrahama, esanikeza inzalo eqondile uMesiya ayezozalwa kuyo. U-Esawu wayengumzingeli omkhulu, eshesha futhi enamandla, intandokazi kayise, u-Isaka, ngakolunye uhlangothi uJakobe wayengumuntu olula nolungile, owayevame ukuhlala ezitolo zomkhaya, eyintandokazi kaRebheka.

Kungase kukuthande:  Isifinyezo seCarol KaKhisimusi kaCharles Dickens

Kwathi ngolunye usuku u-Esawu ebuya endle, walamba kakhulu; Wafica umfowabo eduze kwezitolo zomndeni wamcela ukudla njengoba ayekufuna kakhulu. UJakobe, owayemazi umfowabo nendlela ayephila ngayo ngokuthatheka, wathi kuye: “Ngithengisele ubuzibulo bakho kuqala” ( Genesise 25:31 ).

U-Esawu akazange abonise isithakazelo ezintweni ezingokomoya futhi wavumelana nesicelo somfowabo, njengoba wathi wayesezokufa.

"Bunasizo luni kimi ubuzibulo na? UJakobe wathi: “Funga kimi kuqala; wafunga kuye, wathengisa ngobuzibulo bakhe kuJakobe.

UJakobe wamnika u-Esawu isinkwa nesitshulu sikadali; wadla, waphuza, wasukuma wahamba. Kanjalo u-Esawu wadelela ubuzibulo bakhe” (Genesise 25:32-34). Kunzima ngempela ukucabanga ukuthi u-Esawu wayesengozini yokufa uma engadli ngaleso sikhathi, nokho, akazange asazise isibusiso asithola ngokuba izibulo, ngenxa yokuthile okwakungokwesikhashana.

Wazizwa ejabule ngaleso sikhathi, okungukuthi, kwakuyinjabulo yesikhashana, ekhohlwa lokho ayekuyeka nalokho okwakuzofika kamuva, ngenxa yenjabulo encane kakhulu.

Abantu abaningi bakha izitha futhi balahlekelwe uthando ukuze bathole lokho abakufunayo, abajabule ngisho noma benamandla nengcebo, ngoba ukuphila kwabo bagxile kulokho kuphela.

Ngakho-ke, kufanele uqonde ukuthi ukuba nempilo enhle akubandakanyi kuphela ukuba nempilo enhle esicini esisodwa sempilo yakho, ingasaphathwa eyezinto ezibonakalayo, “ukuba nempilo enhle” kubandakanya zonke izici.

Kuyadingeka ukuba nokuphila komuntu nokunengqondo, lapho ubuhlobo nabanye abantu bubaluleke kakhulu, ngoba uthando, ubungane nokuphathwa kahle kuyingxenye yenhlalakahle yomuntu siqu. Ezweni esiphila kulo, ulimi luyisisekelo, ngoba akuwona umsebenzi wemvelo womzimba kodwa indalo yamasiko esiwazuza futhi siwafunde kwabanye abantu.

Ngaleso sizathu, ukukhuluma nomuntu nokumlalela kusho “ukuba ngumuntu” okusho ukuthi, ukuxhumana nokuzivulela kwabanye kusiguqula sibe ngabantu futhi sibe yilokho esifuna ukuba yikho.

Qonda ukuthi ubudlelwano bethu nabanye bungasenza sibe ngabantu nokuthi nathi singabaphatha ngobuntu, kuwukuphakela njalo.

Isahluko 5: Vuka mntanami!

Lesi sahluko sisimema ukuba sihlole ukuziphatha kwethu nesimo sethu sengqondo kwabanye. Kuyacaca ukuthi sifuna ukuphila kahle, kodwa akuqiniseki ngokuphelele ukuthi sinesiqiniseko sokuthi lokhu kuhlanganisani.

Eqinisweni, okuhle akubonakali ngento eyodwa noma isifiso, isibonelo isikhundla samandla noma imali eningi. Lezi yizifiso ezilula, ngamafuphi, umuntu akaphili ngamandla noma ngemali kuphela, uphila nangezinye izinto.

Njengo-Esawu noKane abaye badela izici eziningi ezibalulekile zokuphila kwabo, ngenxa yenjabulo yesikhashana noma isifiso sokubusa abanye, ngaphandle kokuqaphela ukuthi ukuba khona kulula kakhulu, uma sibhekana nezinkinga ngendlela elula.

Lapho sizama ukwenza okunzima kube lula, simane sifinyeze ubuhlungu. Ngalokhu angisho ukuthi izinkinga noma izithiyo ezivelayo empilweni kufanele zibonakale zijabulisa noma zingijabulise, kodwa kufanele zisiqhubele phambili futhi sizuze okwengeziwe.

Ukube izinto zethu bezingebiwa, kusobala ukuthi lokhu ngeke kusijabulise, ngoba kungaba igalelo elinzima. Kodwa uma lokhu kusigcwalisa ngamandla futhi kuphushele ukuba sibe nokuzuza okuningi kwalokho obekulahlekile, kungabonakala njengento enhle.

Akufanele ukhohliswe isidingo sokuba nezinto, ngisho noma zingcono kakhulu emhlabeni, ngoba abantu abadingi nje izinto ukuze baphile.

Ngendlela efanayo, abanye badinga ukuphathwa kahle kwethu futhi singaphathwa njengezinto, ngoba wonke umuntu ufunda ukuphatha indlela aphathwa ngayo.

Kumelwe kukhunjulwe ukuthi akudingekile ukuba ube nakho konke ukuze ujabule, njengoKane owagxilisa ukuphila kwakhe ekutholeni izinto futhi ekugcineni akazange aswele lutho oluphathekayo, kodwa akazange anake iqiniso lokuthi wayentula kakhulu. okubalulekile, wayengenabo abangane, uthando, akekho wayengenamuntu.

Lokho kunakekela izikhathi eziningi esingakukhokhi, kubalulekile ukuze sizuze leyo mpilo enhle esiyifunayo, ngoba akuyona yonke into efanayo, nakuba ngokushesha noma kamuva kufanele sife.

Kungakhathaliseki ukuthi siphila kahle noma cha, kumelwe sifunde ukuhlonipha nokuqonda abanye, ukuphatha kahle abantu, ukuthandwa.

Lokhu akusho ukuphilela ukujabulisa abanye noma ukulahlekelwa inkululeko yethu, kunalokho, kuwukusebenzisa ngendlela efanele lelo lungelo elibalulekile neliyigugu. Ukuphila akukhona nje ngokulandela imiyalo, ukulalela noma ukungalaleli, kodwa mayelana nokuqonda ukuthi yini ezokwenza ukuphila kwethu kube "impilo enhle." Akekho umuntu onganikela ngalokho angenakho.

Isahluko 6: UJiminy Cricket Uyavela

Ngokuyinhloko kumelwe sikugweme ukuba izilima ekuphileni, ukuntula ukwahlulela okuhle. Umbhali ubonisa ukuthi kunezigaba eziningana zama-imbeciles:

  • Othi akafuni lutho akanandaba futhi akenzi lutho ukuze athole lokho acabanga ukuthi uyakufuna.
  • Ongazithembi.
  • Lowo ongayazi into ayifunayo futhi akazihluphi ngokuyiqonda.
  • Lowo owaziyo ukuthi ufunani, kodwa angenzi ngenxa yobuvila noma ukwesaba.
  • Lowo ofuna kanzima kakhulu futhi enolaka, ngaphandle kokuma nakho konke okweqile, i-ambitious jerk.

Zonke izinhlobo zezilima zinokuthile okufanayo, zidinga izinto ezingaphandle kwenkululeko yazo, izinto zangaphandle ukuze zizwe ukuthi zijabule futhi lokhu ngokuvamile akunikezi impilo enhle, impilo njengoba kufanele.

Ukuqaphela kuwukwenza umzamo nokunaka, ukuqonda ukuthi akuzona zonke izinto ezingasinika okufanayo, noma zingabi nandaba nathi. Kufanele sinikeze ukubaluleka futhi sinake izinqumo zethu, sithuthukise isimilo sethu, sihlukanise phakathi kokuhle nokubi, futhi silawule isifiso sethu sokuvelela.

Ukuqaphela kuwukuziqhenya ngezenzo zethu ezinhle nangayo yonke into esiyenzayo kahle, kodwa futhi nokuzibophezela kulokho esingakwenzi.

Ungalokothi ugweme umthwalo wethu wemfanelo ngamaphutha ethu, ingasaphathwa eyokusola omunye umuntu. Ngale ndlela sizokwenza ngendlela efanele nangendlela efanele.

Isahluko 7: Zibeke endaweni yakhe

Impilo yethu ingumuntu kakhulu ngoba sizungezwe abanye abantu, inkampani yabanye abantu inika ubuntu. Okuthatha izimiso zokuziphatha kuyindlela yokuphila kahle nangendlela efanele, ngakho-ke uma singenalo umbono wezimiso zokuziphatha, silahlekelwa isici sempilo yomuntu.

Isibonelo esihlongozwayo ngumbhali ngesikaRobinson Crusoe, ohlala esiqhingini esiwugwadule ngemva kokuphahlazeka komkhumbi, esebenza kuphela ngokudla kwakhe, indawo yakhe yokuhlala nezinye izinto zemvelo. Aze athole umkhondo esihlabathini.

Ubengeke esaba yedwa, kodwa ingqondo yakhe igcwele ukukhathazeka ngisho engazi ukuthi unyawo lukabani, ubani? Ingabe uzoba nobungane noma usongo? Uzizwa elahlekile, ngoba akazi ukuthi uzosabela kanjani kulokhu kuphenduka endabeni yakhe.

Indlela yokwenza phambi kwabanye abantu kube ngenye yezinto ezikhathaza kakhulu abantu, nakuba bonke befana kangaka. Iningi likhetha ukuzivikela futhi lenze ngokucabangela ukuthi omunye umuntu angaba yisitha sabo. Kodwa nakuba kuyindlela evame kakhulu phakathi kwabantu, akuyona into efanelekile kakhulu, ngoba uma uphatha abantu njengezitha, maningi amathuba okuba uthole impatho efanayo.

Isimo sethu sengqondo akufanele sibe ukugoqa abantu, kungakhathaliseki ukuthi bahle noma babi, kufanele sicabange ukuthi bangabantu, njengoba unjalo nokuthi ukuba khona kwabo kwenza owakho abe umuntu. Nokho, lokhu akusho ukuthi kufanele uzithethelele izenzo zabo ezimbi ngoba ukuba khona kwabo kunikeza ubuntu ezimpilweni zethu.

Esingakwenza ukuzibeka endaweni yabanye, ukuze siqonde isizathu sendlela yabo yokwenza, senze impatho yethu ibe nobuntu. Lokhu akusho ukuyeka izithakazelo zethu, esikuthandayo noma inhlalakahle yethu kwabanye, ukuba nozwela nje, okungukuthi, ukuzifaka ezicathulweni zabo.

Isahluko 8: Kuhle kakhulu

Uma abantu bekhuluma ngokuziphatha nokuziphatha okubi, kukholelwa kakhulu ukuthi kubhekiselwa ocansini kuphela futhi kuwumbono okufanele uguquke, ngoba ukuziphatha akukhathaleli kuphela futhi kuphela lokho abantu abakwenzayo ngemizimba yabo. Ubulili bubi, njengoba nje kungase kube omunye umsebenzi noma isimo ekuphileni kwansuku zonke.

Labo abanamahloni ngekhono labo lokujabulela imizimba yabo banephutha njengalabo abanamahloni ngokufunda amatafula okuphindaphinda.

Njengoba wazi, inhloso yocansi ukuzala, okuholela ekuthatheni uchungechunge lwemithwalo yemfanelo, kodwa indima yayo ayigcini kuphela kule njongo.

Ngocansi akubhekiseli kuphela ekuqinisekiseni ukuqhubeka kwezinhlobo zezilwane, ngoba nazo zinezinye izilinganiso. Akukho okubi ocansini uma kugunyazwe yizinhlangothi zombili.

Kuyacaca ukuthi umuntu angaziphatha kabi ngocansi, alusebenzisele ukulimaza omunye, ukuthola imali, njll. Ngemuva kokuziphatha okubi kobulili nalabo abacabanga ngakho, mhlawumbe kukhona ukwesaba okukhulu kwenjabulo.

Kodwa futhi neminye imisebenzi nezenzo kungaba ukuziphatha okubi, isibonelo, ukudla isemishi lomfundi ofunda naye ngaphandle kwemvume yakhe noma okubi njengokuhlela ukuhlasela kwamaphekula endaweni yomphakathi.

Ngamanye amazwi, ukuziphatha okubi akubhekiseli ocansini ngokuqondile, kunengqondo ukuthi ngokwalokhu kufanele siziphathe ngonembeza omkhulu nenhlonipho, ngokwethu kanye nabanye.

Kodwa akukho lutho olungalungile ngokujabulela le njabulo, inqobo nje uma imele into efanayo kubo bobabili abantu futhi kungekho muntu olimalayo.

Nakuba abantu abaningi becabanga ukuthi ukuzincisha kunoma iyiphi intokozo kuwukuba nokuphila okuhle, okuhloniphekile nokuqotho, ngempela kumelela ubuwula ukuphila unesikhathi esibi, ukudlala indima ye-puritanical.

Ukwesaba injabulo kwabangelwa umphakathi ngokwawo, mhlawumbe ngenxa yokuthi ngokuthanda ukuzijabulisa ngokweqile, lokhu kungasenza sicabange ngalokhu kuphela futhi sizinikele ekuzuleni ekuphileni.

Yingakho umqondo wokuzijabulisa emphakathini uvame ukuhlotshaniswa nento embi futhi engathandeki, ngokwesaba ukuthi sizophazamiseka kakhulu. Kodwa masingakuqondi kabi lokho kokujabulela ubumnandi. Ukuba nokuphila okujabulisayo kuwukujabulela nokusebenzisa ngokunenzuzo okuhle kwakho konke okusizungezile, ukujabulela yonke into ngendlela engcono kakhulu, ngaphandle kokuzilimaza futhi ngaphandle kokusilimaza, ukuze zisinikeze injabulo.

Ukuzijabulisa kufanele kube yinkonzo yenjabulo, ngakho-ke gwema ukweqisa okuvame ukudala umonakalo nokungajabuli. Ubumnandi busenkonzweni yenjabulo futhi umuntu akufanele angenwe yintukuthelo

Isahluko 9: Ukhetho Lukazwelonke

Ipolitiki nezimiso zokuziphatha kuhlobene eduze, kokubili kufuna indlela engcono yokuphila. Nokho, izimiso zokuziphatha ziphathelene nokufuna njalo ukuphila okungcono, ukukhetha lokho okusilungele, kuyilapho ezombangazwe ziphathelene nenhlangano yokuphila komphakathi futhi ngaleyo ndlela umuntu ngamunye ukhetha lokho okulungele kakhulu.

Yingakho wonke umuntu ofisa ukuphila kahle engeke asuke kwezombusazwe. Ubuhlobo babo bobabili nenkululeko buseduze, kodwa ngamunye ngendlela ehlukile, njengoba izimiso zokuziphatha ziphathelene noma zinesithakazelo kulokho umuntu ngamunye akwenzayo ngenkululeko yakhe nezombusazwe, ngakolunye uhlangothi, ukhathazekile ngalokho izakhamuzi ezivamile ezikwenzayo ngenkululeko yazo. inkululeko.

Ezombusazwe kufanele zihlangabezane nezidingo ezithile eziyisisekelo zokuziphatha, njengoba zihlobene nenkululeko, kufanele-ke zihloniphe inkululeko yezakhamuzi futhi zigweme ukucindezela nokucindezela kobushiqela.

Kubalulekile ukucabangela ukuthi ukuphila impilo enhle, into eyinhloko ukuphatha abantu ngobuntu, inhlonipho kanye nozwela, ucabangela izithakazelo zabo futhi, esingakubiza ngokuthi ubulungisa.

Ngaphezu kokunikeza ukwesekwa nosizo kulabo abakudingayo, ngaphandle kokubeka engcupheni isithunzi nenkululeko yezinye izakhamuzi, ebesingayihlukanisa njengenhloso eyinhloko yomgomo othi Usizo. Umgomo-ke kufanele usekelwe emigomeni efana nenkululeko, ubulungiswa kanye nosizo, ngakho-ke izinyathelo eziyisisekelo kanye namazinga afana namaLungelo Oluntu ziyasungulwa.

Ukuze kuqinisekiswe ukuthi Amalungelo Esintu ayafezeka, kubalulekile ukucabangela, ukuhlonipha nokwamukela ukwehlukahlukana kwemibono, amasiko nezindlela zokuphila. Kuyadingeka ukuthi sizihloniphe njengoba sinjalo, abantu abanemisebenzi namalungelo.

I-Epilogue: Kuzofanele ucabange ngakho

Esifundweni, umbhali uzama ukubiza umfundi ukuba azindle, abuze imibuzo emholela ekutheni ajulise ulwazi aluthola embhalweni ngempilo yakhe, ukuze lusetshenziswe. Imibuzo enjengokuthi yini okufanele uyenze ngokuphila kwakho? Ungaphila kanjani ngendlela engcono kakhulu?

Ukuba mhlawumbe imibuzo edlula zonke futhi ebalulekile kuneminye njalo futhi kubonakala kuyingozi kakhulu, mayelana nenjongo yokuphila, ukubaluleka kokuphila nalokho okukhona ngemva kokufa.

Umbhali ushiya umushwana othize osimema ukuba sicabangisise, into eyiqiniso kakhulu, nokuthi impilo ayinayo indlela yokupheka futhi ayinayo incwadi yeziqondiso. Kufanele njalo sizame ukukhetha izinketho ezisinika ithuba lokuba nempilo enhle.

Kungase kukuthande:  U-Giovanni Boccaccio: Isifinyezo se-Decameron, sifunde lapha

Kodwa-ke, i-Savater igcizelela ukuthi iyincwadi okungadingeki ithathwe ngokungathi sína kangako, ngoba ukungathí sina akusho ukuthi kuyafana noma kuwuphawu lokuhlakanipha, njengoba kusho abaseSpain, kuyinkolelo yesithukuthezi.

"Ubuhlakani kumele bukwazi ukuhleka" kukhombisa umbhali, ngoba ubuhlakani akumele bulwe nokuhlekisa. Kunalokho, ingqikithi yayo akufanele ishiywe eceleni noma inganakwa, ngoba iyisiqondiso futhi iyinkomba yalokho ongakwenza ngempilo yakho. Ngoba njengoba uFernando Savater ngokwakhe ebhala, ukuphila akuyona isayensi eqondilea,  kepha a ubuciko.

impikiswano ye-eseyi

UFernando Savater, wabhala ngemicabango nemibono mayelana nentsha, ongeyena omunye ngaphandle kwendodana yakhe u-Amador. Lo mbhalo uyisibonelo sokuthi umfana osemusha ngokugcwele angafundiswa kanjani ukucabanga, ukubona nokuzenzela izinqumo.

Kungukuqukethwe okuhlose ukuqondisa nokufundisa, ukufundisa impilo yonke ngaphandle kwanoma yikuphi, umqondo wukuthi osemusha ufunda ukuthi ukunquma kuyindaba yemfanelo kuye kanye nendawo yakhe.

Le ncwadi inenothi elibalulekile elingachazwa ngokuthi alikona kakhulu ukufundisa, lapho kucaciswa khona ukuthi inhloso yolwazi akukona ukwenza izakhamizi ezinezinhloso ezinhle noma ezimbi, kodwa ukukhuthaza ukuthuthukiswa kwabacabangi abakhululekile.

Esethulweni noma esanduleleni, u-Savater umema indodana yakhe ukuthi izethembe yona nasemandleni ayo okunquma ngendlela efanele, hhayi kubantu besithathu, kungakhathaliseki ukuthi abazali bayo, abaholi benkolo noma amaphoyisa.

Umbhalo unikeza incazelo yezimiso zokuziphatha, kodwa ngaphandle kokuwuhlobanisa nezijeziso noma imivuzo ebekwe abantu abanegunya, abantu nabaphezulu. Umgomo uwukuba umuntu azibuze futhi abuze ukuthi uphatha kanjani impilo yakhe nokuthi angayenza kanjani kangcono.

Umlobi uzama ukudlulisela kumfundi umbono wezimiso zokuziphatha njengendlela yokuthola indlela yokuphila kangcono, lapho ubuhlobo obuhle nabanye abantu busungulwa, ngaphandle kokulahlekelwa indawo yakho nokugcina umbono wakho.

Okuthile okuthiwa kulula, kodwa akunjalo, ngoba ubunzima bangempela bugxile ekuzameni ukuqonda ukuze wenze futhi ungazithobi emithethweni emisiwe namakhodi, noma ukumane ungakwenzi. Umbhali ugxile kumuntu, okuyinhloso kanye nomkhathizwe wokuzijwayeza yonke le miqondo.

Ngaphandle kokunaka kakhulu ukuphila ngemva kokufa, umbhali uncamela ukuba nesithakazelo kulokho okukhona ngaphambi kokufa futhi lokho kulula njengokujabulela ukuphila, hhayi nje ukubeka isikhathi sokusinda noma ukucwiliswa ekwesabeni njalo ukufa.

I-Savater inweba kancane endabeni yenkululeko, iyibheka njengegama elingukhiye. Inkululeko inquma, kodwa futhi kuyacaca ukuthi yini oyinqumayo. Ukuba umuntu omdala ukukwazi ukuklama impilo yakho ngokuqaphela.

Ubuye akhulume kabanzi ngokuziphatha kobulili, ecabangela ukuthi ukukushaya indiva noma ukucasha ngemuva kokuqina nokuqina ngokweqile kuphambene nezimiso zokuziphatha, njengoba ingxenye yomuntu nayo ifuna ukuzijabulisa okuthile, ngaphandle kokudida injabulo yomuntu nesilwane.

Imibono ihambisana nezinye izingcaphuno ezivela ongqondongqondo abafana noSeneca, Fromm, phakathi kwabanye, nezinye izehlakalo nezenzakalo zokuphila kwansuku zonke, kubhekwa njengencwadi ejabulisa kakhulu nekhiqizayo yesigaba sobusha.

Ukuhlaziywa Kokuziphatha kwe-Amador

Njengoba isikhathi sihamba, umuntu uyakhula ngokwemvelo, sonke sizuza ulwazi oluthile, okuningi ngokuhlangenwe nakho.

Nokho, kunolwazi oluningi olungabalulekile ekuphileni, noma ukusinda kwethu, njengoba kunjalo ngezemidlalo noma ezobuciko.

Ngokungafani nezinto ezinjengomlilo obangela ukusha, noma ukugxuma usuka endaweni ephakeme kakhulu kuyingozi futhi kuyabulala, ulwazi olusivumela ukuba siqhubeke siphila, lulondoloze inhlalakahle yethu neyalabo abasizungezile.

Inqubo ukufunda akugcini ngohlanga lwethu kuphela, ezinye izidalwa eziphilayo, njengezilwane zifunda izinto, njengokuthi ukudla kwazo kuyini nokuthi zikuthola kanjani, ukuthi iyini inyamazane yazo, izindawo zokuzivikela, ukulala noma ukudla, njll.

Umehluko kuphela phakathi kwalezi zinhlobo ezimbili, okuthiwa unikeza uhlanga lwesintu inzuzo ethile, isizathu. Abantu ngokuvamile bangacabanga ngendlela enengqondo isikhathi esiningi, kuyilapho izilwane zenza ngomzwelo wemvelo.

Okusho ukuthi izilwane zihlelelwe ukwenza izenzo ezithile empilweni yazo futhi azinayo indlela yokugwema leyo mibono.

Nakuba umuntu engakwazi “ukuhlola isimo, ahlukanise okulungile nokungalungile, okuhle nokubi, anqume ukuthi yini emfanele. Kuthiwa yilokhu okusenza sihluke ezilwaneni futhi, njengoba ngokuvamile kushiwo, siphakeme.

Ikhono labantu lokuhlola isimo nokunquma okungaba kuhle noma kubi kubo libonisa ukuthi abantu bakhululekile. Okusho ukuthi, sinethuba nenkululeko yokuzikhethela.

Kodwa inkululeko isho isibopho futhi yilapho izimiso zokuziphatha zingena khona. Khetha kahle noma okungcono kakhulu esingakwenza, sazi ukuthi izenzo zethu zinemiphumela nasendaweni ezungezile, zinomthwalo wemfanelo omkhulu kakhulu.

Izimiso zokuziphatha ngokweRoyal Academy "isethi yemithetho yokuziphatha elawula ukuziphatha komuntu." Kuthiwa uma isenzo sinesimilo, kungenxa yokuthi silungile, silungile futhi sihambisana nokuziphatha.

Nokho, kungalesi sikhathi lapho izingxabano eziningi ziqala khona, ngoba ngempela, kuyini ukuziphatha nokuziphatha? Kanjani ukwazi ukuthi yini enhle noma embi?

Incwadi kaFernando Savater ikhuluma ngemiqondo okunzima kwabaningi ukuyichaza nokuyiqonda: intando, ukuziphatha, ukuziphatha, phakathi kokunye.

I-Ethics for Amador iyincwadi enendikimba yefilosofi yazo zonke izethameli, kodwa ikakhulukazi entsheni eyamukelwa kabanzi eSpain futhi isihunyushelwe ezilimini eziningi.

Udumo lwakhe eSpain nalo lwaphindwa ku Italia, lapho ethi Ethics for Amador ibe nezinguqulo eziyishumi ezinyangeni nje ezintathu futhi isohlwini lwezincwadi ezithengiswa kakhulu.

Liyincwadi ebhalwe ngendlela egqamile, ithathwa njengethakazelisa kakhulu, njengoba yayibhalelwe osemusha, indodana kaSavater, u-Amador.

Njengoba u-Savater ngokwakhe ethi, uzama ukufundisa indodana yakhe okuthile okuhle nokubi, kodwa ngendlela ehlukile, enothando futhi ehlekisayo.

Okuqukethwe okubalulekile kombhalo izimiso zokuziphatha, ikakhulukazi inkululeko nokuhle, ukulandisa okusheshayo, okuketshezi, okubukhali, okujabulisayo nokucebile kwezinkomba ezimweni zamanje nezehlakalo. Usebenzisa ulimi oluxoxayo, oluxoxayo nolunothando, enze izinkomba kokuqukethwe komsakazo nethelevishini.

Futhi inezinkomba eziningi nezingcezu zokuqukethwe kwemibhalo nefilosofi, phakathi nombhalo, ephetha isahluko ngasinye ngendlela evumela ukujula nokuzindla komuntu siqu.

Imicabango iphendukela ekubeni amahlaya, injabulo, ubungqabavu futhi ngokuvamile igqugquzelwa yizinkumbulo zabo, izehlakalo kanye nezibalo zemibhalo.

Ichazwa abaningi njengencwadi enokuqukethwe okujulile, kodwa enobungane, okufanele wonke umuntu ayifunde, kodwa ikakhulukazi abazali nothisha, ukuxoxa ngayo nomndeni, izingane, abangani, ozakwabo nabafundi.

Umbhalo uhlale udlulisa intshisekelo nokukhathazeka ngekusasa elihle, eligcwele inkululeko yentsha.

Izinhlamvu zomsebenzi

Kulesi sifinyezo se-Ethics for Amador, sifuna ukugcizelela ukuthi isihloko esiyinhloko, njengoba negama laso libonisa, ukuziphatha. Phakathi nokulandisa kubhekiselwa kwabacabangi nezazi zefilosofi, okuthi ngokucaphuna nokucabangisisa kucebise ukubhala.

Injalo indaba yesazi sefilosofi saseJalimane u-Erich Seligmann Fromm, naye ovelele ezindaweni ze-psychoanalysis kanye ne-psychology, onethonya elithile emsebenzini wamaSpanishi:

"Ungakwenzi kwabanye lokho ongafuni bakwenze kuwe" kungenye yezimiso zokuziphatha ezibaluleke kakhulu. Kodwa kuyafaneleka ngokufanayo ukuqinisa: noma yini oyenza kwabanye, nawe uyayenza kuwe.. U-Erich Fromm

U-Lucio Anneo Seneca wayengumuntu ovelele ezindaweni ezifana nefilosofi, ezombangazwe, izinkulumo kanye nokubhala kweRoma lasendulo, owazalwa cishe ngekhulu lesine ngaphambi kukaKristu.

Eshiwo ngu-Savater ekulandiseni kwakhe, sishiya ngezansi ukucaphuna kwesazi sefilosofi, kulesi sifinyezo se-Ethics for Amador:

Labo ababizwa ngokuthi abampofu, banomnotho wabo omkhulu kukho konke futhi ngobuningi obukhulu, banakho lokho abantu abaningi abakufunayo nabangakutholi kungakhathaliseki ukuthi benza umzamo ongakanani, noma ngabe banemali engakanani, okuyimpatho elinganayo. amanye amadoda, njengabantu bangempela. Seneca, Izincwadi eziya kuLucilius.

Okunye okuphawulekayo amazwi acashunwe embongi yaseMexico kanye nombhali wendatshana, u-Octavio: “Inkululeko ayiyona ifilosofi futhi ayiwona ngisho umqondo: iwukunyakaza kokuqaphela okusiholelayo, ngezikhathi ezithile, ukuba sibize amagama amabili angama-monosyllable: Yebo noma Cha.

Ngobufushane balo obusheshayo, njengokukhanya kombani, uphawu oluphikisanayo lwemvelo yomuntu ludwetshwa."Octavio Paz.

Lo Ngcwele wemvelaphi yamaNgisi, wayeyisazi sezenkolo, umbhali kanye nesazi sobuntu, phakathi kwezinye izinto, onomsebenzi owaziwayo futhi ocashunwe nguFernando Savater:

"Futhi abukho ubuhle obuyisici somuntu njengalokhu-uthambisa ngangokunokwenzeka usizi lwabanye, wenze ukudabuka kuphele, ubuyisele injabulo yokuphila, okungukuthi: injabulo." Thomas More,
I-Utopia.

Singakwazi futhi ukwazisa kuleli cala ku-epilogue, imigqa ethile evela kunoveli uLucien Leuwen noma Isikhulu sothando, umsebenzi wesibili kaStendhal, owabhalwa ngo-1834: Hamba kahle, mngane ofundayo; zama ukungagxili impilo yakho ngokuzonda nokwesaba. I-Stendhal.

Ngakolunye uhlangothi, kuvela izinhlamvu ezimbili kuphela embhalweni, okuyizona eziyinhloko futhi okusekelwe kuzo ukulandisa okwenzekayo:

Ubaba, uFernando Savater

Uyena ophethe ukubala futhi achaze iseluleko ngasinye, ukucabanga noma isisekelo afisa ukusidlulisela endodaneni yakhe, ngenhloso yokuyisiza ukuthi isungule futhi isebenzise amaqhinga athile ukubhekana nokuphila impilo yayo ngokuziphatha.

Mayelana nobaba nombhali

UFernando Fernández Savater wazalelwa eSan Sebastián eSpain, ngonyaka we-1947, owaziwa ngomsebenzi wakhe wokufundisa eNyuvesi yaseBasque Country. Ungumbhali ovelele, njengoba ngaphezu kwe-Ethics for Amador njengoba aziwa kanjalo ezweni lakubo futhi okwamenza waqashelwa emhlabeni wonke, wabhala neminye imisebenzi ebaluleke kakhulu.

Phakathi kwale misebenzi kugqame Ingadi yokungabaza, Ibi futhi iqalekisiwe, Izimiso zokuziphatha njengothando, Isichazamazwi sefilosofi, Ubuntwana buyalulama, Ipolitiki yendodana, phakathi kwabanye.

Into engcono kakhulu ngalo mbhali waseSpain ngokuyinhloko indlela yakhe elula yokukhuluma nokulandisa imizwa, imizwa, imizwa, yokukhuluma ama-anecdotes ahlobene nokuphila nokufa, kanye nomphakathi wanamuhla. Imane ilandisa okuhlangenwe nakho nemizwelo yezwe elilahlekelwa ubuyena ngokwandayo.

U-Savater uyisazi sezimiso zokuziphatha, hhayi isazi sesayensi yezinto eziphilayo, isazi solwazi, isazi sengqondo, umgxeki noma umcabango, nokho imibhalo nemisebenzi yakhe ikhuluma ngezihloko ezahlukahlukene, eziqukethe ifilosofi yempilo. Imisebenzi yakhe isukela ezingxoxweni ezilula kodwa ezingabalulekile nendodana yakhe eyeve eshumini nambili, kuya ebuntwaneni obululama, kuya eqoqweni lemibuzo ephathelene nempilo nepolitiki yendodana.

Ungumqambi wamanoveli amaningana, ahlanganisa: UCharon ulindile, Idayari KaJobe, Ulimi lwendawo yokuphila kanye Nengadi yokungabaza.

Ufanele udumo lwakhe ngezincwadi ezithile zezindaba ezifana neziqephu ze-Passionate, ngaphezu kokungenelela enkundleni yemidlalo yeshashalazi no-El traspié: Ntambama noSchopenhauer, uJuliano e-Eleusis, uVente a Sinapia, el Último disembarco, Catón: I-republic ngokumelene noCésar kanye Guerrero ekhaya.

Umsebenzi wakhe udlulela emithonjeni yezindaba, esebenzisana njalo nephephandaba i-El País futhi eqondisa umagazini i-Claves de la Razón Practical noJavier Pradera. Lesi sazi sefilosofi sithole imiklomelo eminingana, imiklomelo kanye nokuqashelwa, okuhlanganisa:

  • I-Eulalio Ferrer International Award, ngo-2015.
  • UDokotela honoris causa waseNyuvesi yasePanama, ngo-2014.
  • Umklomelo Wamasiko Womphakathi WaseMadrid, Izincwadi ezishiwo, 2013.
  • I-Mariano de Cavia Award for Journalism evela ephephandabeni le-ABC, 2012.
  • I-Octavio Paz International Prize for Poetry and Essay, ngo-2012.
  • I-Spring Novel Award, 2012.
  • I-ABC Cultural & Cultural Area Award, ngo-2010.
  • Udokotela honoris causa ovela e-Autonomous University of San Luis Potosí, 2010.
  • Udokotela we-hononis causa wase-University of Colima, ngo-2010.
  • Udokotela we-honoris causa ovela e-National Autonomous University of Mexico, ngo-2009.
  • Umklomelo Wamazwe Ngamazwe Wokulingana Nokumelana Nobandlululo, ngo-2007.
  • Euskadi Silver Prize, ngo-1999. Ngomsebenzi wakhe othi Imibuzo Yokuphila.
  • Umklomelo Izwekazi of Journalism, ngo-1999.
  • Udokotela we-hononis causa waseSimón Bolívar University, ngo-1998.
  • Umklomelo ovela eNhlanganweni Yokuthuthukisa Ukucabanga Okubalulekile, ngo-1998.
  • UFrancisco Cerecedo Award, ngo-1997.

I-Ethics for Amador noma I-Ethics yendodana, ingumsebenzi owaziwa kakhulu yilo mSpanishi, umbhali ovelele wezindatshana, izindatshana zamaphephandaba namanoveli.

Njengombhali uyakhiqiza, uyasungula futhi uhlakaniphile, ubhala izindatshana ezingaphezu kwamashumi amahlanu nenqwaba yezihloko zamaphephandaba, ngaphezu kwemiqulu ecishe ibe ngamashumi amathathu. Eminye imisebenzi yombhali esiyiqoqile kulesi sifinyezo se-Ethics for Amador ihlanganisa:

  • Ubuyiselwe ebuntwaneni, ngo-1976.
  • Okuqukethwe kwenjabulo, 1988
  • Izihlubuki Ezinengqondo, ngo-1990.
  • Izidalwa Zomoya, 1979.
  • Ekuphileni, ngo-1983.
  • Kubi futhi kuqalekisiwe, ngo-1997.
  • Umdlalo wamahhashi, ngo-1997.
  • Inani lokufundisa, 1997.
  • Wakhuluma kanjalo u-Nietzsche, ngo-1997
  • Uthando kuRobert Louis Stevenson, ngo-1998.
  • Vuka futhi ufunde, ngo-1998.
  • I-African Adventure, 1998.
  • Imibuzo yempilo, 1999
  • Isichazamazwi sesakhamuzi ngaphandle kokwesaba ukwazi, 2000
  • Xolela Ukuphazamiseka: I-Chronicle of an Unrmed Wars Against Arms, 2001.
  • Ihhashi phakathi kwenkulungwane, 2001.
  • Izimiso zokuziphatha kanye nokuba yisakhamuzi, 2002.
  • I-Ethnomania vs Citizenship, 2002.
  • Amadolobha nababhali, 2013.
Kungase kukuthande:  Yazi i-Work Kafka on the Shore ka-Haruki Murakami

Indodana, u-Amador

Lo mlingiswa akanyakazi, ungaphakathi emsebenzini njengomlaleli nomamukeli walo lonke ulwazi. Indodana, ngaleso sikhathi esemusha, ingumlingiswa emdlalweni ozama ukuthwebula, ukuqonda nokuhlaziya ngendlela engcono kakhulu izifundo nezimfundiso uyise azama ukumnika yona.

Amador Fernandez-Savater

U-Amador, owazalelwa eMadrid ngo-1974, njengamanje usebenza njengomhleli, umcwaningi, isishoshovu kanye nomlobi. Ungumbhali wemibhalo efana nalena:

  • Ifilosofi nesenzo.
  • Ngaphandle Kwendawo: Izingxoxo Phakathi Kwezinhlekelele Noguquko

Uphinde abe umbhali weminye imisebenzi efanele endaweni yangakubo ihlanganisa:

  • I-Citizen Network ngemva kwe-11-M: lapho ukuhlupheka kungavimbeli ukucabanga noma ukwenza (2008). Mayelana nokuhlaselwa kuka-March 11, 2004.
  • With futhi ngokumelene nesinema: cishe May 68. Umbhalo obhekisela esitelekeni esikhulu kunazo zonke esike senzeka emlandweni waseFrance, okuwukuphela kokuvukela okuvamile okuhlangatshezwe umphakathi obuswa i-capitalism, ngasengxenyeni yesibili yekhulunyaka lamashumi amabili.

Njengamanje unomthwalo wemfanelo webhulogi Ukuphazamisa kuyi-digital medium eldiario.es futhi uye waqondisa ngokubambisana iphephabhuku i-Aripiélago eminyakeni embalwa edlule. Usebenza enkampanini yokunyathelisa i-Watercolor Books, njengoba yasungulwa eminyakeni engaphezu kweyishumi edlule.

Imisho evela encwadini

Yonke incwadi ibhekwa njengenhle kakhulu futhi ekuqukethe kungasetshenziswa ngokunenzuzo ngaphandle kokubhukha. Nokho, kuhlale kunemishwana enomthelela omkhulu kubafundi bebonke futhi nansi eminye yayo kulesi sifinyezo esithokozisayo se-Ethics for Amador:

Isahluko 1

Isahluko sokuqala salesi sifinyezo se-Ethics for Amador sigcizelela izimiso zokuziphatha komuntu siqu futhi sishiya imishwana ethakazelisa kakhulu ukuthi icatshangwe:

  • Ngamafuphi, phakathi kwalo lonke ulwazi olungenzeka kukhona okungenani okukodwa okubalulekile: ukuthi izinto ezithile ziyasifanela kanti ezinye azisifanele.
  • Ukwazi indlela yokuphila akulula kangako ngoba kunemibandela ehlukahlukene ephikisanayo mayelana nalokho okufanele sikwenze. 

Isahluko 2

  • Kwesinye isikhathi izimo ziyasiphoqa ukuthi sikhethe phakathi kwezinto ezimbili esingazikhethanga: woza, kunezikhathi lapho sikhetha khona yize besingathanda ukungakhethi..
  • Ngokuvamile, umuntu akachithi ukuphila kwakhe ecabanga ngalokho okusifanelayo noma okungasifanele ukuba sikwenze.

Isahluko 3

  • Akudingekile ukuba sithatheke yilokho esicabanga ukuthi akulungile. Futhi ukuze ungathatheki, kungcono ukucabanga okungenani kabili ngalokho okwenzayo.
  • Kumele sizenzele izinqumo, akekho ongasenzela zona.
  • Ukuze sisebenzise inkululeko yethu ngendlela efanele kumele sishiye ngemuva imiyalo, amasiko nezifiso.

Isahluko 4

  • Kodwa into eyodwa ukuthi "yenza lokho okufunayo" futhi enye into ehluke kakhulu ama-whims, okungukuthi, ukwenza lokho okuza kuqala okufunayo.
  • "Yenza okufunayo" njengesiqubulo esiyisisekelo sokuziphatha simane nje ulahle imiyalo namasiko, imivuzo nesijeziso.

Isahluko 5

Eminye yemisho evelele yalesi sahluko sesihlanu sesifinyezo se-Ethics for Amador yesihlanu yilena:

  • Ukwelapha kubalulekile ngoba abantu benza ubuntu komunye nomunye. Ngokuphatha abantu njengabantu hhayi ukuthanda izinto, ngenza kube nokwenzeka ukuba bangibuyisele lokho umuntu oyedwa kuphela angakunika omunye.
  • Ukuze siphile impilo enhle, kubalulekile ukulalela izwi lethu elingaphakathi futhi siligcwalise ngendlela yokuthi lisanelise, ngaphandle kokulalela amahemuhemu abanye.

Isahluko 6

  • Okuwukuphela kwesibopho esinaso thina madoda kulokhu kuphila ukuthi singaziphuthi ngokuziphatha. Igama elithi imbecile livela kwelesiLatini i-baculus okusho ukuthi "umhlanga": isiphukuphuku yileso esidinga induku ukuze sihambe.
  • Okuphambene nokuba nesiphukuphuku sokuziphatha kuwukuba nonembeza, kodwa unembeza awutholakalanga ngengozi, nakuba kukhona abantu abaye baba “nendlebe yokuziphatha” enhle kanye “nokunambitheka kokuziphatha” okuhle kusukela ebuntwaneni.

Isahluko 7

Eminye yemisho ethakazelisa kakhulu evela esahlukweni sesikhombisa sesifinyezo se-Ethics for Amador ihlanganisa:

  • Ukuzibeka endaweni yomunye kungaphezu nje kwesiqalo sakho konke ukuxhumana okungokomfanekiso naye: kumayelana nokucabangela amalungelo akhe. Ukuzibeka endaweni yomunye kuwukubathatha ngokungathi sína, ukuzibheka njengongokoqobo ngokugcwele njengawe.
  • Izimiso zokuziphatha azibhekani nemibuzo ebalulekile ukuze uphile ezimweni ezithile; lokho izimiso zokuziphatha ezithakaselwayo yindlela yokuphila kahle impilo yomuntu, impilo edlula phakathi kwabantu

Isahluko 8

  • Ebulilini akukho lutho olungcolile. Singumzimba, ngaphandle kokwaneliseka kanye nenhlalakahle yakhe akukho ukuphila okuhle okufanelekile.
  • Omunye wemiphumela ezuzisayo yenjabulo ejulile ukuhlakaza zonke izikhali zendlela, ukwesaba nokuncane esikugqokile futhi okuvame ukusicasula ngaphezu kokusivikela.
  • Konke okuholela enjabulweni kulungile (okungenani ngombono owodwa, nakuba kungenasici) futhi konke okusithatha ngokungenathemba kude nenjabulo kuyindlela engalungile.

Isahluko 9

Isahluko sokugcina sesifinyezo se-Ethics for Amador sidingida izimiso zokuziphatha nepolitiki, njengoba benobudlelwane obuseduze:

  • Yonke iphrojekthi yezepolitiki iqala enkululekweni.
  • Noma ngubani ozifunela impilo enhle, ngokohlelo lwezimiso zokuziphatha, kumele futhi afune ukuthi umphakathi wezepolitiki wamadoda usekelwe libertad , ubulungisa futhi
    i-asistencia.

Asiyeki ukufaka isiqephu njengengxenye yesifinyezo se-Ethics for Amador, ngoba njengakho konke okuqukethwe sikubona kuthakazelisa kakhulu:

  • Ukuphila akuyona isayensi eqondile, njengezibalo, kodwa ubuciko njengomculo.
  • Impilo enhle ayiyona into evamile, eyenziwe ngochungechunge, kodwa ikhona kuphela ukuze ikalwe.
  • Okungithakaselayo akukhona ukuthi kukhona ukuphila ngemva kokufa, kodwa ukuthi kukhona ukuphila ngaphambili. Futhi lokho kuphila kube kuhle, hhayi ukusinda okulula noma ukwesaba njalo ukufa.

Ukubonakaliswa kokuziphatha kwendodana

Lokhu kuzindla okufushane kwesifinyezo se-Ethics for Amador kuzama ukuqoqa okuncane kwenhloso yombhali ngale ndaba ebalulekile.

Encwadini yakhe, uFernando Savater akafuni ukuchaza ngobuciko ukuthi izimiso zokuziphatha ziyini, ingasaphathwa eyokunikeza isifundo sefilosofi, lokho akuphakamisayo emsebenzini wakhe ukudalwa kwezakhamuzi ezingacabanga ngokukhululeka hhayi abantu abalandela lokho abanye abakushoyo.

Umbhali ufuna ukugcizelela ukuthi singabantu abakhululekile, kodwa kufanele sazi ukuthi singakhetha kanjani ukuthi senzeni ngenkululeko yethu. Eqinisweni, thina ngaso sonke isikhathi sokuphila sibizelwa ukwenza izinqumo, ngisho nasezimweni eziwubala kakhulu, kokubili kubantu abadala nasezinganeni.

Ukuba yiphutha elivame kakhulu, lelo esivame ukulenza, ukukhetha ngezinyawo esikhundleni sokusebenzisa amakhanda ethu. Okungukuthi, ngaphandle kokubheka nokucabanga kahle ngaphambi kokukwenza, ukushiya eceleni amehlo nobuchopho, futhi ngale ndlela asiqapheli ukuthi yini esiyikhethayo ngempela.

Kulesi sifinyezo se-Ethics for Amador, uSavater unikeza isibonelo sika-Esawu, othi eBhayibhelini, ebuya elambile evela emasimini, anike umfowabo ubuzibulo bakhe ngokushintshanisa isitsha sikadali.

Ukube wayecabange kahle, ukube wayema ​​wazibuza ukuthi ufunani ngempela, u-Esawu wayeyobona ukuthi mhlawumbe wayefuna ukuba yizibulo ngaphezu kwalokho ayekufuna udali.

Imfundiso umbhali afuna ukuyidlulisa ngeyokuthi ngaphambi kokukhetha nokwenza okuthile kumele sime sicabangisise, ngoba akwenzi mqondo noma umqondo ukuthi ngokuhamba kwesikhathi kufanele siphenduke ekukhetheni. Kubaluleke kakhulu futhi ukucabangela yonke into ehlanganisa ukukhetha kwethu, bonke abantu nezidalwa ezingase zilimale ngenxa yezenzo zethu noma zibone izinhlelo zabo zilungiswa futhi zithintekile.

Ukuthonya abantu abaningi kabi, konke lokhu kungenxa yokuntula ukucabanga okunengqondo nenhlonipho encane abanayo ngabo siqu nakwabanye.

Izihloko eziningi zidingidwa kule ncwadi, kodwa igama eliyisisekelo lapho ukuthuthukiswa kokulandisa okuzungeza khona lithi "izimiso zokuziphatha", eliphinde limelele intambo evamile yezihloko ezihlukahlukene ezitholakala encwadini.

Kukhona ibinzana eliphindaphindayo encwadini,  Yiba nokuzethemba, ukuba umusho omfushane, ogcwalisa ugqozi labo abadidekile kancane ngomthelela ongadalwa okuqukethwe. Inkulumo esivame ukuyizwa kubantu abakwazisayo, ikakhulukazi abazali bethu, lapho ngenxa yesizathu esithile ithemba lilahlekile futhi sikholelwa ukuthi asikwazi ukwenza noma ukuxazulula okuthile.

Ngicabanga ukuthi le nkulumo ingabhebhethekisa ilukuluku nesifiso sokubona ukuthi lokho kuzophela kanjani ngempela, ngakho kufanele “sithembe” futhi mhlawumbe sithole ukuthi senze okufanele ngokulinda, sifunde ukwethemba ngaphandle kokuxhamazela.

Kungenzeka kakhulu ukuthi uzomangala, njengoba nje u-Amador ngokwakhe kungenzeka ukuthi wamangala ngakho konke uyise uFernando Savater ayefuna ukufundisa futhi umphumela walokhu, waphenduka incwadi edumile.

Yincwadi elula, okwenza ucabange ngokuziphatha okuvamile, okungenzeka kungafaneleki kakhulu futhi okufanele kulungiswe.

Njengalapho siphelelwa isineke sokuthenga ihembe, bese ukucabanga ngakho akubukeki kukuhle emzimbeni wakho, noma banelukuluku lokufuna ukwazi ukuthi ucekela phansi izimanga. Ngokungaziniki isikhathi sokufuna okuthile okungcono noma ukulinda bese ucabanga ukuthi bekuyoba ngcono ukuvumela izinto zithathe isikhathi sazo ngaphandle kokujaha kakhulu, kulahleka izikhathi nesikhathi esibalulekile.

Umusho wombhalo abafundi abavame ukuwuthanda kakhulu nesiwufaka kulesi sifinyezo se-Ethics for Amador, yiwo othi zama ukuphila kahle.

Ngokuqinisekile abantu abakwenzi okusijabulisayo, kodwa sivame ukuthonywa okulindelwe abanye kanye nemfashini yomphakathi.

Ngokuvamile, sonke sithonywa okuthile futhi lokhu kusiholela ekulahlekelweni ubuntu bethu ngendlela ethile futhi siphile ukuphila okungeyona eyethu, ngoba akuthina.

Kulesi sifinyezo se-Ethics for Amador sifuna ukuveza into umbhali ayigqamisa njengebaluleke kakhulu nokuthi ukuzimela, cabanga kahle, sebenzisa ikhanda lakho, ikakhulukazi esigabeni sobusha lapho sithonywa khona.

Yisikhathi empilweni lapho umuntu evame ukuzizwa engakhululekile uma ebukeka noma ehlukile kwabanye, kodwa lokhu kuyinto engalungile.

Asibona abantu abahlukene, singabokuqala futhi ukucabanga ngokuzimela futhi sihlonishwe ngalokho, yikho okuvumela ukudalwa komphakathi olingana ngokuphelele.

Ukuphila kahle kusho nokuba nguwe, ukukhululeka nokuba nelungelo lokukhetha ikusasa lakho, ngaphandle kokucabanga noma ukucushwa yilokho okuthandwa abanye.

U-Fernando Savater uzama ukuchaza ngendlela elula kakhulu ukuthi kaningi sigijima siqonde futhi sigcwele isivinini sibheke emaphutheni, ngakho-ke kufanele sithathe isikhathi sokucabanga ngokucophelela ngaphambi kokukhetha.

Khumbula ukuthi uma izinqumo sezenziwe, kuba nzima ukubuyela emuva, njengoba zihlala zibangela ukusabela okuthile futhi zikhiqize imiphumela.

USavater ukubeke kwacaca ukuthi kumele siphathe abantu esiphila nabo njengabantu hhayi njengezinto, ngakho-ke sizothatha izinqumo ezingeke zisenze sizisole ngezenzo zethu futhi ezizosenza siphile kahle.

https://youtu.be/giloab8L13w

Ukushicilela nokuthengisa emhlabeni wonke

Ngakolunye uhlangothi lwalesi sifinyezo se-Ethics for Amador, eyashicilelwa okokuqala ngo-1991, kufanele siqaphele ukuthi lo msebenzi ophumelele kakhulu uhunyushelwe ezilimini ezingamashumi amabili nesithupha ezahlukene.

Iphinde ibe nezethulo ngendlela yama-audiobooks futhi akusho ukuthi ukuthengiswa kwayo bekuyizigidi. Ubulula bokubhalwa kwayo okudingida udaba lwezimiso zokuziphatha, okuthi ngokomlobi ofanayo kube umbhalo owusizo walesi sihloko omele inketho ehlukile nehlukile yesigaba seNkolo.

Igama lombhalo lifuna ukunikeza isitayela esikhululeke kakhudlwana kulo, ngamazwi akhe aliqambe ngaleyo ndlela ukuze lingabi nesitayela esisemthethweni nesokufunda. Ulimi lwayo olulula noluqondile oluvumelana nazo zonke izethameli, ikakhulukazi intsha.

Zama ukuthatha isihloko esingajwayelekile ezithamelini ezisencane ngendlela ejabulisayo nethakazelisayo, ugweme ukuba nesitayela esibi esifana nebhukwana lemibono nezimiso zokuziphatha.

I-Savater ihlola izindaba ezithile ezihlobene nezimiso zokuziphatha, ezibhekwa njengezibalulekile emphakathini kulezi zikhathi, njengokusebenzisa inkululeko ngendlela efanele nenesibopho, ukuqashelwa kwesibopho ngezinqumo nezenzo zabo.

Iphinde ibhekane nesidingo sobudlelwane nokuphilisana phakathi kwabantu, njengesici esibalulekile sokufeza ukugcwala kwempilo, ngaphezu kokuzivumela ukuba ujabulele ubumnandi bokuphila, ngendlela enempilo. Le ncwadi enolimi olufinyeleleka ngokumangalisayo nolusondelene ngendlela emangalisayo, isivumela ukuba sazi ukuthi ibaluleke kangakanani ezimpilweni zethu, yonke into etholakalayo nephumela ezinqumweni esizenzayo nsuku zonke.

Uma uthole i-athikili emayelana nesifinyezo se-Ethics for Amador inentshisekelo, ungangabazi ukuxhumana nezinye izixhumanisi:


Okuqukethwe yi-athikili kuhambisana nemigomo yethu yezimiso zokuziphatha zokuhlela. Okwamanje sisebenzela ukulungisa nokuthuthukisa okuqukethwe kwethu ngezinye izilimi.

Uma ungumhumushi ogunyaziwe ungasibhalela nokusebenza nathi. (isiJalimane, iSpanishi, isiFulentshi)

Ukuze ubike iphutha lokuhumusha noma ukuthuthukiswa, chofoza lapha.

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